Two-round system

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The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting system used to elect a single winner. Under runoff voting, the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no candidate receives an absolute majority of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting occurs.

Runoff voting is used around the world for the election of legislative bodies and directly elected presidents. For example, it is used in French presidential, legislative, and cantonal elections, and also to elect the presidents of Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Finland, Ghana, Guatemala, Indonesia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Uruguay, Zimbabwe —see: Table of voting systems by nation.

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