Typhoid fever

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Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid,[1] is a common worldwide illness, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica enterica, serovar Typhi.[2][3] The bacteria then perforate through the intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages. The organism is a Gram-negative short bacillus that is motile due to its peritrichous flagella. The bacterium grows best at 37 °C/99 °F – human body temperature.

This fever received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever, pythogenic fever, etc. The name of "typhoid" was given by Louis in 1829, as a derivative from typhus.

The impact of this disease falls sharply with the application of modern sanitation techniques.

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Typhoid fever is characterized by a slowly progressive fever as high as 40 °C (104 °F), profuse sweating, gastroenteritis, and nonbloody diarrhea. Less commonly, a rash of flat, rose-colored spots may appear.[4]

Classically, the course of untreated typhoid fever is divided into four individual stages, each lasting approximately one week. In the first week, there is a slowly rising temperature with relative bradycardia, malaise, headache and cough. A bloody nose (epistaxis) is seen in a quarter of cases and abdominal pain is also possible. There is leukopenia, a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells, with eosinopenia and relative lymphocytosis, a positive diazo reaction and blood cultures are positive for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi. The classic Widal test is negative in the first week..

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