Urology (from Greek οὖρον - oûron, "urine" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). Urology is one of the most competitive specialties to enter for physicians. 
In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other. Urology combines management of medical (i.e. non-surgical) problems such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as surgical problems such as the surgical management of cancers, the correction of congenital abnormalities, and correcting stress incontinence.
Urology is closely related to, and in some cases overlaps with, the medical fields of oncology, nephrology, gynecology, andrology, pediatric surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology.
As a discipline that involves the study of many organs and physiological systems, urology can be broken down into subfields. At larger centers and especially university hospitals, many urologists sub-specialize within a particular field of urology.
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