Vine

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A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the broad sense refers to any climbing or trailing plant. The narrower and original meaning is the grapevine (Vitis).

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Climbing plants

Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available.

A vine is a stick form based on long stems. This has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy. This has been a highly-successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, and grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism. Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can then climb to brighter regions. [1]

The vine growth form may also enable plants to colonize large areas quickly, even without climbing high. This is the case with periwinkle and ground ivy. It is also an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both worlds.

A climbing habit has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods. [2] Some plants climb by twining their stems around a support (e.g., morning glories, Ipomoea species). Others climb by way of adventitious, clinging roots (e.g., ivy, Hedera species), with twining petioles (e.g., Clematis species), or using tendrils, which can be specialized shoots (Vitaceae), leaves (Bignoniaceae), or even inflorescences (Passiflora). Others climb through the use of thorns, which pierce the support (e.g. climbing rose); or by other hooked structures, such as hooked branches (e.g. Artabotrys hexapetalus). Species of Parthenocissus (Vitaceae) produce twining tendrils that are modified stems, but which also produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite strongly to the support. The evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants.[3]

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