Vipava, Slovenia

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Vipava (Italian: Vipacco, German: Wippach) is a small town in western Slovenia with 1500 inhabitants. It is the center of a municipality with 5185 people. Vipava is built near the numerous sources of the Vipava River, in the upper Vipava Valley, 102 m above sea level. Historically, it used to be a part of the traditional region of Inner Carniola, but it is now generally regarded as a part of the Slovenian Littoral.[2]



The region around the town was probably settled by the Illyrians and Celts in the pre-Roman era. Some trace the name Vipava to the Celtic root vip (river). In 394, the Battle of the Frigidus took place in the vicinity of the town. In the late 6th century, Slavic tribes, ancestors of modern Slovenes, settled the area. In the late 8th century, the Vipava Valley was included into the Frankish Empire and the Christianization of Slovenes started.

In the Middle Ages, the Valley was first included into the Duchy of Friuli. Between 1340 and 1355, Vipava and its surroundings were constantly contended between the Counts of Gorizia, the Patriarches of Aquileia and the Habsburg Duchy of Carniola. Modern Vipava was first mentioned in 1367. In the same period, it was finally included into the County of Gorizia. After a short Venetian interim, Vipava fell under the Habsburg domain in 1501 and in 1535 it was included into Carniola. In the mid 16th century, it emerged as an important center of Protestant Reformation. It remained part of Carniola until 1918, when it was occupied by the Italian troops and annexed to the Kingdom of Italy.

In the period between 1922 and 1943, it was subjected to a violent policy of Fascist Italianization. Many locals joined the militant antifascist organization TIGR. During World War II , the whole area became an important center of partisan resistance. In 1945, it was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisan troops and in 1947 it became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and of independent Slovenia in 1991.

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