Wage slavery

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{theory, work, human}
{black, white, people}
{company, market, business}
{rate, high, increase}
{government, party, election}
{law, state, case}
{war, force, army}
{woman, child, man}
{disease, patient, cell}
{god, call, give}
{specie, animal, plant}
{country, population, people}
{land, century, early}
{build, building, house}
{son, year, death}

Some social activists objecting to the market system or price system of wage working, historically have considered syndicalism, worker cooperatives, workers' self-management and workers' control as possible alternatives to the current wage system.[4][5][6][18]

Labor and government

The American philosopher John Dewey believed that until "industrial feudalism" is replaced by "industrial democracy," politics will be "the shadow cast on society by big business". Thomas Ferguson has postulated in his investment theory of party competition that the undemocratic nature of economic institutions under capitalism causes elections to become occasions when blocs of investors coalesce and compete to control the state.[90]

Noam Chomsky has argued that political theory tends to blur the 'elite' function of government:[91]

In this regard Chomsky has used Bakunin's theories about an "instinct for freedom",[93] the militant history of labor movements, Kropotkin's mutual aid evolutionary principle of survival and Marc Hauser's theories supporting an innate and universal moral faculty,[94] to explain the incompatibility of oppression with certain aspects of human nature.[95][96]

Influence on environmental degradation

Loyola University philosophy professor John Clark and libertarian socialist philosopher Murray Bookchin have criticized the system of wage labor for encouraging environmental destruction, arguing that a self-managed industrial society would better manage the environment. They, like other anarchists,[97] attribute much of the industrial revolution's pollution to the "hierarchical" and "competitive" economic relations accompanying it.[98][99][100][101][102]

Employment contracts

Some criticize wage slavery on strictly contractual grounds, e.g. David Ellerman and Carole Pateman, arguing that the employment contract is a legal fiction in that it treats human beings juridically as mere tools or inputs by abdicating responsibility and self-determination, which the critics argue are inalienable. As Ellerman points out, "[t]he employee is legally transformed from being a co-responsible partner to being only an input supplier sharing no legal responsibility for either the input liabilities [costs] or the produced outputs [revenue, profits] of the employer’s business."[103] Such contracts are inherently invalid "since the person remain[s] a de facto fully capacitated adult person with only the contractual role of a non-person . . ." as it is impossible to physically transfer self-determination.[104] As Pateman argues:

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