Warmblood

related topics
{specie, animal, plant}
{car, race, vehicle}
{theory, work, human}
{group, member, jewish}
{company, market, business}
{language, word, form}
{island, water, area}
{ship, engine, design}

Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse types and breeds, primarily originating in Europe, registered with organizations that are characterized by open studbook policy, studbook selection, and the aim of breeding for equestrian sport. The term distinguishes these horses from both heavy draft horses ("cold bloods") and refined light saddle horses such as the Thoroughbred and Arabian ("hot bloods"). Though modern warmbloods are descended from heavier agricultural types systematically upgraded by hotblood influence, the term does not imply that Warmbloods are direct crosses of "cold" and "hot". It is thought that the warmblood type, which originated in continental Europe, descended from a landrace of wild, native proto-warmblood ancestors,[1] and possibly trace back to a wild prototype called the Forest Horse.

Contents

Breeding policies

Open studbook policies separate most warmbloods from true "breeds" such as Thoroughbreds, Arabians, Percherons, Morgans, which have a closed stud book and require two purebred parents. Instead, most warmblood registries accept breeding stock from other similar populations to continuously improve their own horses, and do not consider their own horses to be a discrete "breed". The Trakehner is an exception, so though some other breeds are used within the breeding population, this horse is considered a true breed. The Hanoverian, Holsteiner, and Selle Francais studbooks are also considered slightly less open than others. Most warmblood registries recognize breeding stock from any other registry that is a member of the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses, which is affiliated with the IOC-recognized International Federation for Equestrian Sports.

A defining characteristic of a warmblood registry is studbook selection, though even some purebred breeds in Europe use this practice. Studbook selection is the use of external evaluation - critiquing conformation and movement - of potential breeding stock to cull out unsuitable breeding horses and direct the evolution towards a particular goal. Today, studbook selection usually entails a performance proof in addition to external evaluation, particularly for stallions.

Standards of conformation and movement are not designed to perpetuate a particular ancestral type, but rather to meet a particular need. This concept is illustrated by the history of the Oldenburg horse through the past 150 years: in the late 19th century, the standard called for a heavy but elegant, high-stepping carriage horse, in the early 20th century for a heavier, stronger, economical farm and artillery horse, and since 1950 for a modern sport horse.

Full article ▸

related documents
Hebe (genus)
Amphiuma
Oleaceae
Dipper
Anomalocarid
Musaceae
Rodhocetus
Echidna
Eastern Imperial Eagle
Azalea
Himalayan Tahr
Trakehner
Crab
Ocicat
Trees of Britain and Ireland
Trypanosome
Toothwort
Apomixis
Mylodon
Euglenid
Insectivora
PudĂș
Rutaceae
Kinetoplastid
Herpetology
Ossicles
Biogeography
Sarraceniaceae
Amberjack
Exoskeleton