Wars and conflicts between India and Pakistan

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Kashmir conflict · 1947 War · 1965 War · 1971 War · Siachen · Operation Brasstacks · Operation Rakshak · Kargil War · Atlantique Incident · Operation Parakram

The Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan have fought numerous armed conflicts with each other since their creation following the end of the British Raj and the subsequent partition of India in August 1947. The two South Asian nations have been involved in three major wars, one undeclared war and numerous border skirmishes and military standoffs. Additionally, the two countries have also accused each other of engaging in proxy wars by providing military and financial assistance to violent non-state actors.

The Kashmir dispute has been the root cause of all major conflicts between the two countries with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, where the dispute concerned the erstwhile East Pakistan.

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Origins of conflict

The Partition of India came about in the aftermath of World War II, when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilization.[1]

It was the intention of those who wished for a Muslim state to come from British India to have a clean partition between independent and equal "Pakistan" and "Hindustan" once independence came.[2] The partition itself, according to leading politicians such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League, and Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress, should have resulted in peaceful relations. However, the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 did not divide the nations cleanly along religious lines. Nearly 50 percent of the Muslim population of British India remained in India.[3] Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims resulted in between 500,000 to 1 million casualties.[4]

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