Wars of Scottish Independence

related topics
{war, force, army}
{son, year, death}
{land, century, early}
{island, water, area}
{area, part, region}
{county, mile, population}
{town, population, incorporate}

The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the independent Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

The First War (1296–1328) began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. The Second War (1332–1357) began with the English-supported invasion of Edward Baliol and the "Disinherited" in 1332, and ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick. The wars were part of a great national crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining moments in the nation's history. At the end of both wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent nation. The wars were important for other reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare.

Contents

The First War of Independence: 1296–1328

Background

King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his 4-year-old granddaughter Margaret (called "the Maid of Norway") as his heir. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland signed the Treaty of Birgham agreeing to the marriage of the Maid of Norway and Edward of Caernarvon, the son of Edward I, who was Margaret's great-uncle. This marriage would not create a union between Scotland and England because the Scots insisted that the Treaty declare that Scotland was separate and divided from England and that its rights, laws, liberties and customs were wholly and inviolably preserved for all time.

Full article ▸

related documents
Peter I of Russia
Yongle Emperor
Basil II
Roger Casement
Albert Speer
Sviatoslav I of Kiev
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Reinhard Heydrich
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abd ar-Rahman I
Glorious Revolution
Roger II of Sicily
Manuel I Komnenos
Mark Antony
Gaius Marius
Battle of Bannockburn
Kim Philby
French Wars of Religion
Aegina
Alexios I Komnenos
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Clan Ross
John III Sobieski
History of Luxembourg
Battle of Towton
Yuan Shikai
European influence in Afghanistan
Frederick Augustus I of Saxony
1346
Sitting Bull