Weimar culture

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Weimar culture was a flourishing of the arts and sciences that happened during the Weimar Republic (between Germany's defeat at the end of World War I in 1918, and Hitler's rise to power in 1933).[1] This period is frequently cited as one of those with the highest level of intellectual production in human history; Germany was the country with the most advanced science, technology, literature, philosophy and art.[2][3] 1920s Berlin was at the hectic center of the Weimar culture.[1] Although not part of the Weimar Republic, some authors also include the German speaking Austria, and particularly Vienna, as part of Weimar culture.[4]

In Science, Heisenberg formulated the famous Uncertainty principle, and, with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics;[5] Paul Klee revolutionized painting and his lectures on modern art at the Bauhaus have been compared for importance to Leonardo's Treatise on Painting and Newton's Principia Mathematica, constituting the Principia Aesthetica of a new era of art;[6][7] the Bauhaus school by Walter Gropius founded modern architecture;[8] in philosophy, Husserl and Heidegger posed the basis for the later Derrida's Deconstruction of the 1960s;[9] the neo-Marxist sociology developed by Theodor Adorno and the Frankfurt School dominated the field in much of Europe; the avant-garde theater of Bertoldt Brecht and Max Reinhardt in Berlin was the most advanced in Europe, being rivaled only by that of Paris.[8] While Rudolf von Laban and Mary Wigman laid the foundations for the development of Contemporary dance.

If we also include the German speaking Vienna, during the Weimar years Mathematician Kurt Gödel published his groundbreaking Incompleteness Theorem; and cultural critic Karl Kraus, with his brilliantly controversial magazine Die Fackel, advanced the field of satirical journalism, becoming the literary and political conscience of this era.[10]

With the rise of Nazism and the ascent to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933, many German intellectuals and cultural figures fled Germany for Turkey, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other parts of the world. Those who remained behind were often arrested, or detained in concentration camps. The intellectuals associated with the Institute for Social Research (also known as the Frankfurt School) fled to the United States and reestablished the Institute at the New School for Social Research in New York City.

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