Wikipedia:Naming conventions (names and titles)

related topics
{language, word, form}
{son, year, death}
{work, book, publish}
{church, century, christian}
{law, state, case}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}
{mi², represent, 1st}
{rate, high, increase}
{country, population, people}
{area, part, region}
{math, number, function}
{government, party, election}

As royalty and nobility often use titles rather than surnames, often change titles, and often have common names which are not unique, using a clear and consistent nomenclature can sometimes be difficult. This page contains a set of conventions for article titles that have been adopted through discussions between Wikipedia editors (see the talk page and its archives, and earlier, Wikipedia talk:History standards).

General policy on the naming of Wikipedia articles can be found at Wikipedia:Article titles. It is generally advisable to use the most common form of the name used in reliable sources in English ("common name" in the case of royalty and nobility may also include a person's title), but there are other things which should be considered: ease of use, precision, concision, and consistency among article titles; and a system constraint: we cannot use the same title for two different articles, and therefore tend to avoid ambiguous titles. For general guidance on finding titles for articles about people, see WP:Naming conventions (people).

Most of the conventions below are intended to apply to medieval and modern European rulers and nobility, since in these civilizations the same given names are often shared between countries, so some disambiguation is often required, and disambiguation by territory is convenient. The principles used here may also be useful in titling articles on Muslim rulers and nobility. Elsewhere, territorial designations are usually unnecessary in article titles.

For guidance on how to use titles and names within articles, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (biographies).

For clerical titles (popes, cardinals, etc.), see Naming conventions (clergy).



These following conventions apply to European monarchs since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (but not to the Byzantine Emperors), because they share much the same stock of names. For example, there are several kings and an emperor who are most commonly called Henry IV; their articles are titled Henry IV of England, Henry IV of France, and so on. The same holds for most kings; see James I, Robert I, and so on. The conventions on this page are also recommended, where applicable, for Muslim monarchs, who share their own common stock of names.

For guidance on East Asian monarchs, see Names and titles outside the West below. Roman Emperors are covered by Naming conventions (ancient Romans), and Byzantine Emperors by Naming conventions (Greek).

Full article ▸

related documents
Roman naming conventions
Dál Riata
Regional accents of English
British toponymy
Mass noun
Doric dialect (Scotland)
Old Italic alphabet
Pashto language
Slash (punctuation)
Middle English creole hypothesis
Algonquian languages
Lexical category
Measure word
Ge'ez language
Uvular consonant
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Locative case
Kannada language
Xhosa language
Doric Greek