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Welcome to The Graham Group
Ecological and evolutionary immunology

We aim to understand how natural selection has shaped strategies for both host defense and parasite transmission, and why hosts are so heterogeneous in immune responsiveness. Our laboratory methods will be familiar to immunologists, but our questions as well as our statistical and mathematical methods are drawn from evolutionary ecology.

Of the myriad molecules that power the mammalian immune system, our favorites are cytokines and antibodies. Cytokines are intercellular signalling molecules that determine the type and magnitude of parasite-killing mechanisms enabled; antibodies are among the most potent and specific of those mechanisms. We assess immunological conflicts posed by co-infection, the effects of strong cytokine and antibody responses upon both host and parasite fitness, and selection pressures that shape the speed and specificity of immune responses. For more details, please see Research and Papers, as well as EEB Disease Group and Health Grand Challenges


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