Princeton University Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies - A Program of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
How Many Jazz Musicians Are There?

About this Quick Fact

Source of Data

The data used in this summary were taken from the Study of Jazz Artists 2001, conducted by the Research Center for Arts and Culture(, under a cooperative agreement with the National Endowment for the Arts ( and the San Francisco Study Center ( Surveys were conducted in each of four metropolitan areas: New York, San Francisco, New Orleans, and Detroit. In each city, two surveys were conducted. The first was a conventional random sample of musicians belonging to the American Federation of Musicians (AFM). The second was conducted using "respondent-driven sampling" (RDS) among jazz musicians in each metropolitan area. (RDS is a new form of chain-referral sampling recently developed by Cornell University sociologist Douglas Heckathorn.) The RDS survey was conducted in order to locate jazz musicians who do not belong to the AFM union or other institutions that could be used to locate and identify them. [Jeffri, Joan. 2003. Changing the Beat: A Study of the Worklife of Jazz Musicians, Volume III: Respondent-Driven Sampling. NEA Research Division Report #43. Washington DC: National Endowment for the Arts.]

For more information about this study, see Changing the Beat: A Study of the Worklife of Jazz Musicians, available from the National Endowment for the Arts as NEA Research Division Report #43 (


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