Classics 329     SEX AND GENDER IN THE ANCIENT GREEK WORLD     Spring 1999

SYLLABUS

Prof. Froma I. Zeitlin: 108 E. Pyne. fiz@princeton.edu. x8-3957.

Two-Volume Course Packets: from Pequod. Vol 1: Primary readings.     Vol. 2: Secondary readings
X = Packets
R = Reserve
RP = Reserve/Purchase
PS = Peradotto/Sullivan
Blundell= S. Blundell, Women in Ancient Greece

Please always bring relevant primary texts to class, whether relevant books or packet (vol 1).

You may also wish to browse the CLA329 Image Catalog.

1. Tu Feb 2: INTRODUCTION
Goals and themes of the course. Categories of sex and gender as social and constructs. Sources and methodologies. The prestige of ancient models for Western thought and practice.

A test case: Amazons
Amazons in some ancient historical sources:

  • Herodotus
  • Lysias
  • Strabo
  • Diodorus Siculus
  • Plutarch
  • Blok. "Conclusions" from The Early Amazons: Modern and Ancient Perspectives on a Persistent Myth (Handouts in class)

You may want to view the Amazon Section of the Image Catalog.

Chronology of Greek history and culture: for reference (Handout in class)

2. Th Feb 4: THEORIES OF MATRIARCHY AND MOTHER RIGHT. ORIGINS.
Amazons (con)

  • J. J. Bachofen's theory of Mother Right (X).
  • S. Georgoudi. "Creating a Myth of Matriarchy." (X)
  • J. Bamberger. "The Myth of Matriarchy" (X)
  • Blundell, 9-12, 14-19; "Amazons," 58-62.

[F. I. Zeitlin, "Introduction" to Playing the Other: Gender & Society in Classical Greek Literature optional (R)]

3. Tu Feb 9: THE EPIC MODEL: ARCHAIC GREECE.
The Master Plots of Western Literature.

Men at War and Heroic Code:

  • Homer, Iliad Bks 1, 3, 12.290-342, 22 (X)

Returning Home: Ideals of household and marriage. A spectrum of feminine roles. Odysseus as "Everyman" and "Noman."

  • Homer, Odyssey, Bks 1, 4-12. (RP)

You may want to view the Homeric Section of the Image Catalog.

4. Th Feb 11: THE EPIC MODEL II
  • Homer, Odyssey, Bks 17-23
  • Blundell, 47-57, 63-64
  • H. Foley, "Reverse Sex Similes in the Odyssey," P/S (RP)
  • Samuel Butler, The Authoress of the Odyssey (excerpt) (X)

[F. I. Zeitlin, "Figuring Fidelity in Homer's Odyssey." optional (R)]

5. Tu Feb 16: COSMOLOGY AND THE MYTHIC 'ORIGINS' OF GENDER
  • Hesiod, Theogony
  • Bible, Genesis chs. 1-4 (X)
  • Homeric Hymn to Apollo (X)
  • Blundell, 20-46, 92-94 (with relevant illustrations)
  • Sherry Ortner, "Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?" (X).

You may want to view the Beginnings Section of the Image Catalog.

[For reference: Check List of Olympian Divinities] (X)

6. Th Feb 18: THE CREATION OF WOMAN: Prometheus and Pandora
  • Hesiod: Works and Days (excerpts) (X)
  • Semonides, An Essay on Women (X)
  • Homeric Hymn to Gaia (Earth) (X)
  • Blundell, 63-64; "Women in an Age of Transition," 65-77
  • L. Sussman, "Workers and Drones: Labor, Idleness, and Gender Definition in Hesiod's Beehive," P/S (RP).

[F. I. Zeitlin, "Signifying Difference: The Case of Hesiod's Pandora." optional (R)]

7. Tu Feb 23: THE CLASSICAL CITY: FROM 'MOTHER RIGHT' TO PATRIARCHY
  • Aeschylus, Oresteia (RP): Agamemnon [the first play of the trilogy]
  • Blundell, 95-97; "The Lives of Women in Classical Athens," 130-49

You may want to view the Oresteia Section of the Image Catalog.

8. Th Feb 25: ORESTEIA (con)
  • Aeschylus, Choephoroi (Libation Bearers); Eumenides [last two plays]
  • F. I. Zeitlin, "The Dynamics of Misogyny: Myth and Mythmaking in the Oresteia," P/S
  • Blundell, "Women in Drama," 172-80

9. Tu Mar 2: LAW AND ORDER: TWO LEGAL CASES IN THE ORATORS
  • Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes (X)
  • Demosthenes, Against Neaira (X)
  • Blundell, "Women in Athenian Law and Society," 113-29
  • D. Cohen, "The Social Control of Adultery at Athens" (X)

10. Th Mar 4: MAKING SPACE SPEAK: INSIDE AND OUTSIDE
  • Xenophon, Oeconomicus (X)
  • M. Foucault, The Use of Pleasure," 143-84: Economics (RP).
  • F. Lissarrague, "Women, Boxes, Containers: Some Signs and Metaphors (X)
  • P. Bourdieu, "The Berber House" (X)
  • S. Murnaghan, "How a Woman Can Be More Like a Man: The Dialogue Between Ischomachus and His Wife in Xenophon's Oeconomicus." (X)

11. Tu Mar 9: SEXUAL IMPERATIVES: GROWING UP MALE
  • Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite (X)
  • Euripides, Hippolytus (RP)
  • M. Foucault. The Uses of Pleasure, 35-93. "The Moral Problematization of Pleasures".
  • A. Carson, "Putting Her in Her Place: Woman, Dirt, and Desire" (X)

12. Th Mar 11: MYTH AND CULT I. GROWING UP FEMALE: MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS: DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE
  • Homeric Hymn to Demeter: (X)
  • Blundell, "Women and Religion," 160-65
  • H. Foley. "Background: The Eleusinian Mysteries and Women's Rites for Demeter" and "Female Experience in the Hymn to Demeter," both excerpted from The Homeric Hymn to Demeter (X)

[F. I. Zeitlin, "Configurations of Rape in Greek Myth" (R) optional]

You may want to view the Growing Up Female Section of the Image Catalog.

M I D T E R M    V A C A T I O N

13. Tu Mar 23: MYTH AND CULT II: DIONYSOS AND MAENADS
Divine Madness. Boundary Crossing between male and female, mortal and immortal.

  • Euripides, Bacchae (Dionysos). (RP)
  • Blundell, "Women and Religion," 165-69
  • C. Segal, "The Menace of Dionysus" in P/S, 195-212 (RP)
  • S. McNally, "The Maenad in Early Greek Art," P/S (RP)

You may want to view the Dionysos / Maenads Section of the Image Catalog.

14. Th Mar 25: THE COMIC MODEL: WOMEN ON TOP
  • Aristophanes, Lysistrata in Three Plays of Aristophanes (RP)
  • Thucydides, Pericles' "Funeral Oration" (X)
  • J. Henderson, "Greek Attitudes Toward Sex." (X)

TAKE HOME MIDTERM DUE: March 28

15. Tu Mar 30: THE COMIC MODEL: RETURN TO THE MYTH OF MATRIARCHY
  • Aristophanes, Ecclesiazousae in Three Plays of Aristophanes (RP)
  • St. Augustine (X)

[Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazousae in Three Plays of Aristophanes. optional]

16. Th Apr 1: THE PHILOSOPHICAL MODEL: PLATO I
The Making of the Ideal Community and Alternate Societies (Sparta)

  • Plato, Republic, 4.445-5.466 (X)
  • Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus (Spartan Women) (X)
  • Plutarch, Sayings of Spartan Women (X)
  • Blundell, "Sparta and Gortyn," 150-59
  • S. M. Okin, "Philosopher Queens and Private Wives" and "Female Nature and Social Structure," from Women in Western Political Thought, (X)

17. Tu Apr 6: PEDERASTY (THE LOVE OF BOYS); SAPPHO: LOVE OF GIRLS?
  • K. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (excerpts) (X)
  • S. Cohen, "Law, Social Control, and Homosexuality" (X)
  • Blundell, "Women as Poets: Sappho," 82-91
  • Sappho (model or illusion?). Jane Snyder. (X)

You may want to view the Sappho Section of the Image Catalog.

18. Th Apr 8: THE PHILOSOPHICAL MODEL: PLATO II
Sexuality and the Making of the Male Self

  • Plato, Symposium (RP)
  • Plato, Timaeus (excerpt) (X). [See p. 1 of "Medicine" in Lefkowitz & Fant, unit 20]
  • M. Foucault, The Use of Pleasure, "Erotics," 187-246 (RP)
  • Blundell, "Women and the Philosophers," 180-87
  • Lin Foxhall, "Pandora Unbound: A Feminist Critique of Foucault's History of Sexuality" (X)

You may want to view the Symposium Section of the Image Catalog.

[see also Notes on Foucault's Use of Pleasure (from Diotima)]

19. Tu Apr 13: THE PHILOSOPHICAL MODEL: ARISTOTLE
Rational discourse and 'scientific' observation of gender roles. Politics, Economics, Biology.

  • Aristotle, Politics: selections (X)
  • S. Okin, "Woman's Place and Nature in a Functionalist World," from Women in Western Political Thought, 73-98 (X)

20. Th Apr 15: MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODELS OF THE BODY I
Theories of Embryology and Heredity. Male & Female Seed.

  • Hippocratic corpus: "The Oath"; "The Canon"; "The Seed" (X)
  • Aristotle, On the Generation of Animals: "Semen" and "On Embryology" (X)
  • M. Foucault, The Use of Pleasure, "Dietetics," 97-139 (RP)
  • G.E.R. Lloyd, "The Female Sex" (part 2), 86-111 (X)
  • A. Hanson, "Conception, Gestation and the Origin of Female Nature in the Corpus Hippocraticum (X)

21. Tu Apr 20: MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODELS OF THE BODY II
Theories of the Female Body

  • Aristotle (excerpts) (X)
  • Hippocratic corpus: "Medicine" in Lefkowitz & Fant, Life in Greece and Rome (X)
  • Blundell, "Women's Bodies," 98-112
  • G.E.R. Lloyd, "The Female Sex" (part 1) 58-86 (X)
  • Lesley Dean-Jones: "The Politics of Pleasure: Female Sexual Appetitite in the Hippocratic Corpus." (X)

22. Th Apr 22: THE HELLENISTIC AND GRAECO-ROMAN PERIODS
From Polis (City State) to Cosmopolis. City and Country. The Romance of True Love: First Awakenings

  • Longus, Daphnis and Chloe (X)
  • Plutarch, "Advice to Bride and Groom" (X)
  • Theocritus, Idyll 15, "Women Celebrating the Festival of Adonis"
  • M. Foucault. "Self and Others" in The Care of the Self 69-95
  • F. I. Zeitlin, "Gardens of Desire in Longus' Daphnis and Chloe" (X)

23. Tu Apr 27: THE GRAND SYNTHESIS: THE GRECO-ROMAN NOVEL I
  • Apuleius, The Golden Ass I, The Tale of Cupid and Psyche (93-142) (RP)
  • Artemidorus, Oneirokritika (Dream Interpretations) [excerpts] (X)
  • M. Foucault, "The Wife" from The Care of the Self (145-85)
  • S. MacAlister, "Gender as Sign and Symbolism in Artemidoros: Social Aspirations and Anxieties" (X)

You may want to view the Novel Section of the Image Catalog.

24. Th Apr 29: THE GRECO-ROMAN NOVEL II
Knowledge, Sexuality, and Redemption

  • Apuleius, The Golden Ass: II (read rest of work)

Summing up

TAKE HOME FINAL: due Monday, May 18

REQUIRED BOOKS:

Primary Sources. Other modern translations are also acceptable, but not advised. (Other primary sources in Course Packet, vol. 1)
Aeschylus, Oresteia tr. Lattimore (Chicago).
Apuleius, The Golden Ass tr. J. Lindsay (Indiana).
Aristophanes: Three Plays by Aristophanes: Staging Women. Henderson (Routledge).
Euripides: Tragedies, vol 1 (Alcestis, Hippolytus, etc). (Chicago).
Euripides: Tragedies, vol 5 (Bacchae, Electra, etc). (Chicago).
Hesiod, Theogony and Works and Days (Oklahoma).
Homer, Odyssey tr. Fitzgerald (Vintage).
Plato, Symposium (Hackett).

Secondary Sources (Other secondary sources in Course Packet, vol. 2)
Blundell, Sue. Women in Ancient Greece (Harvard).
Foucault, Michel. The Uses of Pleasure (Vintage).
Peradotto, J. & Sullivan, J., eds. Women in the Ancient World: the Arethusa Papers.