Vesalius's frontispiece to De Fabrica Corporis Humani (1543) captures the new enthusiasm for anatomy at Padua and elsewhere. Vesalius taught anatomy according to structure, thus the skeleton presiding over the anatomy. Rather than looking at a Galenic text, students crowd to watch Vesalius himself perform the anatomy. The monkey and the dog refer to Galen's use of animal dissection instead of human dissection.