History 211 - The Emergence of Europe, 400-1700

Fall 1993 Professor M.S. Mahoney

Final Examination 19 January 1994


Complete all THREE parts of the examination, allotting your time as indicated. Please use a separate booklet for each part, placing your name and your preceptor's name on each booklet. The honor pledge on the first booklet will suffice.

PART I (60 minutes)

Identify FIVE of the following passages taken from the sources read this term. In addition to the name of the work and its author, your identification should include a brief explanation of the historical context and significance of the ideas expressed in the passage.


Hereby it is manifest, that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, as is of every man, against every man.


Proposition XIX: All kings and natural rulers, cities, communities and villages in the Indies shall recognize the monarchs of Castile as their universal and sovereign rulers and emperors in the following manner: after having received our holy faith and sacred baptism of their own free will; and if before receiving these they do not do so or wish to do so, they cannot be punished by any judge or court.


The first [precept] was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgment than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt.


For albeit it be trew that I have at length prooved, that the King is above the law, as both the author and giver of strength thereto; yet a good king will not onely delight to rule his subjects by the lawe, but even will conforme himselfe in his owne actions thereunto, alwaies keeping that ground, that the health of the common-wealth be his chiefe lawe: And where he sees the lawe doubtsome or rigorous, hee may interpret or mitigate the same, lest otherwise Summum ius be summa iniuria: And therefore generall lawes, made publickly in Parliament, may upon knowen respects to the King by his authority bee mitigated, and suspended upon causes onely knowen to him.


Finally, of his own accord and without any show of hostility or defiance, he came with a few followers to the fortress of Canossa where we were staying. There, on three successive days, standing before the castle gate, laying aside all royal insignia, barefooted and in coarse attire, he ceased not with many tears to beseech the apostolic help and comfort until all who were present or who had heard the story were so moved by pity and compassion that they pleaded his cause with prayers and tears.


For really I think that the poorest he that is in England hath a life to live, as the greatest he; and therefore truly sir, I think it's clear, that every man that is to live under a government ought first by his own consent to put himself under that government; ...


From this arises the question of whether it is better to be loved more than feared, or feared more than loved. The reply is, that one ought to be both feared and loved, but as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than loved, if one of the two has to be wanting.


There may be triflers who though wholly ignorant of mathematics nevertheless arrogate the right to make judgments about it because some passage in Scripture wrongly twisted to their purpose, and will dare to criticise and censure this undertaking of mine. I waste no time on them, and indeed I despise their judgement as thoughtless.Copernicus,


Now there is such a swarm of vermin at Rome, all called Papal, that Babylon itself never saw the like. There are more than three thousand Papal secretaries alone; but who shall count the other office-bearers, since there are so many offices that we can scarcely count them, and all waiting for German benefices, as wolves wait for a flock of sheep?


To attain this degree of conformity, which is the principle of all forms of trade, it is necessary to override the motives of small private interests which do not deserve consideration among the general motives of the good of the state. . . .


PART II (45 minutes)

Write an essay on ONE of the following questions. Your answer should have a clear, cogent argument backed up by pertinent evidence taken from the material of the course.


You are ruler of a small German principality in the mid-sixteenth century. The recent Peace of Augsburg has established the principle of "cuius regio, eius religio", i.e. that the religion you choose for yourself will become that of all your subjects. To help you in weighing this momentous and difficult choice, you have asked a leading Protestant and a leading Catholic to debate before you which church would better serve the religious and political interests of yourself and your people. Construct that debate.


This picture should be familiar to you by now. It represents Francis Bacon's view of a new European sense of place in the world and in time. What did he think was happening or should be happening, and how well did the developments of the ensuing century bear him out?


PART III (45 minutes)

Write an essay on ONE of the following questions. Your answer should have a clear, cogent argument backed up by pertinent evidence taken from the material of the course.


In looking over the various episodes of European encounters with the rest of the world, what changes, if any, do you see in the capacity of Europeans to understand cultures other than their own? What explains either the changes or the lack of change?


By the end of the seventeenth century, Europeans had acquired a shared sense of common cultural identity; they thought of themselves as European. At the same time, they had divided themselves into more or less permanent nation-states, predicated in part on a sense of difference among them. How do you account for this apparent paradox?


"I pledge my honor that I have not violated the Honor Code on this examination."