History 593

The Sciences of the Artificial

Professor Michael S. Mahoney

(Current Agenda and Readings as of 11/8)

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Wednesday, 9:00-11:50

Firestone Library C8L 

Week 1 (9/20): 7
Themes and Agenda
Herbert Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ch. 1 and overview of overall structure.
Week 2 (9/27):
The Natural and the Artificial

Reporter: Emily Brock

Primary
Aristotle, Physics, Book II
Bacon, The New Organon, Book I
Robert Hooke, Micrographia, Preface

Secondary
Peter Dear, Discipline & Experience, Ch. 6, "Art, Nature, Metaphor"
S. Lelas, "Science as Technology", Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 44(1993), 423-42
J.E. Tiles,  "Experiment as Intervention", Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 44(1993), 463-75

Background
Paolo Rossi, Philosophy, Technology, and the Arts in the Early Modern Era
Ian Hacking, Representing and Intervening

Week 3 (10/4):
The Clockwork Universe

Reporter: Carla Makler

Primary
Descartes, The World, or Treatise on Light, and Treatise on Man
Christiaan Huygens, On the Center of Oscillation (for other texts on mechanics by Descartes and Huygens, click here)
Isaac Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Preface, Axioms or Laws of Motion, and Book I, Sect. 2 (passim)

Secondary
Alan Gabbey, "Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy: A Treatise on 'Mechanics'?", in P.M. Harman and A.E.Shapiro (eds),The Investigation of Difficult Things,  305-322
Michael S. Mahoney, "The Determination of Time and of Longitude at Sea", in H.J.M Bos, et al, Studies on Christiaan Huygens, 234-270
Michael S. Mahoney, "The Mathematical Realm of Nature", in D.E. Garber et al.(eds.), Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy, Vol. I, pp. 702-55
Otto Mayr, Authority, Liberty, and Automatic Machinery in Early Modern Europe, Ch. 3,  "The Clockwork Universe"

Background and Additional References
See syllabus for HIS 591, Spring '97
 

Esthetic Intellectual Experience

William J.H. Andrewes, The Quest for Longitude (Harvard Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments, 1996)
Week 4 (10/11):
The World of Energy

Reporter: Matt Wisnioski

Primary
Sadi Carnot, Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire; E Clapeyron, Memoir on the Motive Power of Heat; R. Clausius, On the Motive Power of Heat (published togegther by E. Mendoza)
Charles Babbage, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures
Joseph Fourier, Théorie analytique de la chaleur [1812, 1822]; cf. original versions, "Mémoire sur la propagation de la chaleur avec notes séparées sur cette propagation ... ", in Ivor Grattan-Guiness and J.R. Ravetz, Joseph Fourier 1768-1830 (Cambridge, MA, 1972)

Secondary
M. Norton Wise,  "Work and Waste: Political Economy and Natural Philosophy in Nineteenth Century Britain", History of Science 27(1989), 263-301, 391-449; 28(1990), 221-61
Wise, "Mediating Machines", Science in Context 2,1(1988), 77-113

Background and Additional References
Crosbie Smith, The Science of Energy

Week 5 (10/18):
Cybernetics

Reporter:   Joe November

Primary
Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener and Julian Bigelow, "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology," Philosophy of Science 10 (1943): 18-24
Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (Cambridge: MIT, 1948; 2nd ed., 1961) 
W. Ross Ashby, An Introduction to Cybernetics

Secondary
Michael A. Arbib, "A Historical Perspective [on Cybernetics]",  in his Brains, Machines, and Mathematics, 2nd. ed. Chap. 1
Peter Galison, "The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision," Critical Inquiry 21 (1994): 228-265
David A. Mindell, "'Datum for it Own Annihilation:' Feedback, Contol, and Computing, 1916-1945" (Ph.D., MIT, 1996), Chapter 9 
Geof Bowker, "How to be Universal: Some Cybernetic Strategies, 1943-70," Soc. Stud. Sci. 23 (1993): 107-27
H. Kalmus, "A Cybernetical Aspect of Genetics," Journal of Heredity 41 (1950): 19-22 
Robert Trappl, ed. Cybernetics: Theory and Application (Washington: Hemisphere, 1983); students should look at the range of fields covered under "Applications"

Background and Additional References
Otto Mayr, The origins of feedback control
Steven J. Heims, The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953: Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America

Week 6 (10/25):
Information Theory

Reporter:   Tania Munz

Primary
Claude Shannon, The Mathematical Theory of Communication
Henry Quastler (ed.), Essays on the Use of Information Theory in Biology (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1953)
F. H. C. Crick, "On Protein Synthesis," Symposium of the Society for Experimental Biology 12 (1958): 138-63 
J.B.S. Haldane, "Data Needed for a Blueprint of the First Organism," in Sideney W. Fox, ed. The Origins of Prebiological Systems (Academic Press, 1965)
Ken Thompson, "On Trusting Trust", Communications of the ACM, 27, 8(1984), 761-763

Secondary
William Aspray, "The Scientific Conceptualization of Information: A Survey," Annals of the History of Computing 7:2 (1985): 117-140
Mindell, Chapter 4
Sahotra Sarkar, "Biological Information: A Skeptical Look at Some Central Dogmas of Molecular Biology," The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives (Kluwer, 1996), pp. 187-231
Evelyn Fox Keller, "The Body of a New Machine: Situating the Organism Between the Telegraph and the Computer," last essay in Refiguring Life: Metaphors of Twentieth-Century Biology (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995). 
Lily E. Kay, "Cybernetics, Information, Life: The Emergence of Scriptural Representations of Heredity", Configurations 5(1997), 23-91; and "Who Wrote the Book of Life? Information and the Transformation of Molecular Biology," Science in Context 8 (1995): 609-34.

Background and Additional References
Lila L. Gatlin, Information Theory and the Living System (Columbia U.P., 1972), Chaps. 1,6,7
Francois Jacob, The Logic of Life: A History of Heredity (Pantheon, English translation 1973, French 1970)
John R. Pierce, An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise (NY: Harper, 1961; 2nd. rev. ed., NY: Dover, 1980)

FALL BREAK
Week 7 (11/8):
Game Theory and Economics
Primary
John v. Neumann and Oscar Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (1944), Chapter I

Secondary
Margaret Schabas, "Alfred W. Marshall, W. Stanley Jevons, and the mathematization of economics", ISIS 80(1989): 60-73; cf. her A World Ruled by Number: William Stanley Jevons and the Rise of Mathematical Economics (1990)
Robert J. Leonard, "Creating a context for game theory", in E. Roy Weintraub (ed.), Toward a History of Game Theory, 29-76
Philip Mirowski, "What were von Neuman and Morgenstern trying to accomplish?", ibid., 113-147

Background and Additional References
Philip Mirowski, More heat than light: Economics as social physics, Physics as nature's economics (1989) [a controversial book; cf. "Review Symposium on Philip Mirowski's 'More Heat than Light ...", Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22(1992), 77-141, esp. the critique of M. Norton Wise]
Bruna Ingrao and Giorgio Israel, The invisible hand: Economic equilibrium in the history of science (1990)
Mary S. Morgan, The history of econometric ideas

Week 8 (11/15):
The Computer and the 
Church-Turing Thesis

Reporter:   Jane Murphy

Primary
Warren S. McCulloch and Walter Pitts, "A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity", Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 5(1943), 115-33 (repr. in Warren S. McCulloch, Embodiments of Mind (MIT, 1965), 19-39, and in Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence (Oxford, 1990), 22-39)
John von Neumann, "First Draft of a Report on the Edvac" (1945) and "General and Logical Theory of Automata" (1954) 

M.S. Mahoney, "Computer Science:  The Search for a Mathematical Theory", in J. Echeverria, A. Ibarra and T. Mormann (eds.), The Space of Mathematics (Berlin/New York: De Gruyter, 1992), 347-61
Robert Rosen, "Church's Thesis and Its Relation to the Concept of Realizability in Biology and Physics", Bull. Math. Biophysics 24(1962), 375-393 
Robert Rosen, "Effective Processes and Natural Law", in The Universal Turing Machine, ed. R. Herken, 485-98
B. Jack Copeland, "The Church-Turing Thesis", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, s.v.

Background and Additional References
Andrew Hodges, Alan Turing, The Enigma (visit Hodge's extensive Turing home page, which includes a link to a working Turing Machine applet
William Aspray, John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing

Week 9 (11/22):
Artificial Intelligence

Reporter:  Craig Cornelius

Primary
Alan M. Turing, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence", Mind 59(1950), 433-60 
John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, Claude E. Shannon, A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence(1956) 
Marvin Minsky, "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence", in Edward Feigenbaum and Julian Feldman, Computers and Thought (1963), 406-450. 
"Artificial Intelligence: A Debate" ( John Searle vs. Paul and Patricia Churchland), Scientific American (January 1990), 25-37 
Simon, Chaps. 3-4

Secondary
Allen Newell, "Intellectual Issues in the History of Artificial Intelligence", in Fritz Machlup and Una Mansfeld (eds.), The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages, 187-227 

Background and Additional References
Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence (includes Turing's and Searle's papers)
Hubert L. Dreyfus, What Computers Can't Do (Harper & Row, 1972) 
Marvin Minsky, The Society of Mind (Simon and Schuster, 1986) 
Daniel Crevier, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence (Basic Books, 1993) 

Week 10 (11/29):
Models of Growth
Primary
Noam Chomsky, "On certain formal properties of grammars", Information and Control 2,2(1959), 137-167
Aristide Lindenmayer, "Mathematical models for cellular interactions in development", J. Theor. Biol. 18(1968), 280-99, 300-15 Cf. his L-systems(An L-system Tutorial)
John H. Holland, "Studies of the Spontaneous Emergence of Self-Replicating Systems Using Cellular Automata and Formal Grammars," in A. Lindenmayer and G. Rozenberg (eds.), Automata, Languages, Development (Amsterdam, 1976)
Edward F. Moore , "Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines", in Automata Studies, ed. Claude Shannon and John McCarthy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956), 129-153. [re: Lindenmayer's statement (p.281), "We assume a 'blackbox', or in more recent terms a 'sequential machine', ..."]

Secondary
Noam Chomsky, The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, 1-53 ("Introduction 1973")
Sheila A. Greibach, "Formal languages: Origins and directions", Annals of the History of Computing 3,1(1981), 14-41

Background and Additional References
Gary William Flake, The Computational Beauty of Nature
Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz and Aristid Lindenmayer, The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants (Springer Verlag, 1990), esp. Chap.1 
John H. Holland, Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity
Terrence W. Deacon, The Symbolic Species : The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain (for a critique of Chomsky's basic premise)

Week 11 (12/6):
Cellular Automata and Adaptive Systems 
Artificial Life

Reporter:  James Platts-Mills

Primary
Christopher Langton, "Artificial Life", in Margaret A. Boden (ed.) The Philosophy of Artificial Life, Chap. 1 
Thomas S. Ray, "An Approach to the Synthesis of Life", ibid., Chap. 3; see the Tierra home page and get a copy of the software 
John Maynard Smith, "Evolution -- Natural and Artificial" ibid., Chap. 5 
Elliott Sober, "Learning from Functionalism -- Prospects for Strong Artificial Life", ibid., Chap. 14 
John L. Casti, "Newton, Aristotle and the Modeling of Living Systems", in John Casti and Anders Karlqvist (eds.),  Newton to Aristotle: Toward a Theory of Models for Living Systems, 47-89 
Walter Fontana, Günther Wagner, Leo W. Buss, "Beyond Digital Naturalism", in Christoper G. Langton (ed.), Artificial Life: An Overview, 211-228 (online version [requires PostScript viewer and/or printer])

Secondary
Claus Emmeche, The Garden in the Machine: The Emerging Science of Artificial Life

Background and Additional References
Richard Doyle, On Beyond Living: Rhetorical Transformations of the Life Sciences, Chap. 7, "Emergent Power: Vitality and Theology in Artificial Life" 
Stefan Helmreich, Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World
John L. Casti, Alternate Realities: Mathematical Models of Nature and Man, Chap. 2

Week12 (12/13):
A Philosophy of Complexity
Secondary
Simon, Chap. 7 
Cilliers, Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems (London/NY, 1998)

Background and Additional References
John M. Ellis, Against Deconstruction
Laura Landweber's Freshman Seminar on DNA Computing