History 598: History of Technology
Fall 1994: The Career of Engineering

1. 9/15  Introduction, organization  
2. 9/22  Renaissance engineering  
James S. Ackerman, "'Ars sine scientia nihil est': Gothic Theory of Architecture at the Cathedral of Milan", The Art Bulletin
Bert S. Hall, "'Der Meister sol auch kennen schreiben und lasen': Writings about Technology, 1400-1600, and their Cultural Implications", in Early Technologies (ed. D. Schmandt-Basserat) [online version]
Bruce T. Moran, "German Prince-Practitioners:  Aspects in the Development of Courtly Science, Technology, and Procedures in the Renaissance," Technology and Culture, 22(1981), 253-274; cf. his "Princes, Machines, and the Valuation of Precision in the 16th Century", Sudhoffs Archiv61(1977), 209-228
David Goodman, "Philip II's Patronage of Science and Engineering," British Journal for the History of Science, 16(1983), 49-66
Samuel Y. Edgerton, "The Renaissance Artist as Quantifier", in Margaret A. Hagen (ed.), The Perception of Pictures, I, 179-212; cf. his The Renaissance Rediscovery of Linear Perspective
Michael S. Mahoney, "Diagrams and Dynamics: Mathematical Perspectives on Edgerton's Thesis", in John W. Shirley and F. David Hoeniger (eds.), Science and the Arts in the Renaissance, Chap. 10.
3. 9/29  The engineer in the 18th century  
Eric Robinson, "The profession of a civil engineer in the 18th century", in A.E. Musson and Eric Robinson, Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution
Charles C. Gillispie, Science and Polity in France at the End of the Old Regime, Chap. VII
C. Stewart Gillmor, Coulomb and the Evolution of Physics and Engineering in Eighteenth-Century France, Chaps. 1, 3; App. C
Anne Blanchard, Les ingénieurs du <<Roy>> de Louis XIV à Louis XVI
Anne Blanchard, Dictionnaire des ingenieurs militaires, 1691-1791
Helene Vérin, La gloire des ingénieurs : l'intelligence technique du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle
Antoine Picon, French architects and engineers in the Age of Enlightenment (Architecture (UES) NA1046.5.N4 P513 1991, non-circulating)
Antoine Picon, L'invention de l'ingénieur moderne : l'École des ponts et chaussées, 1747-1851, 13-25, 299-307; dip into pages in between (Book I) to get sense of content; cf his "Les ingenieurs et la mathematisation: L'exemple du genie civil et de la construction", Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 42(1989), 155-172.
4. 10/6  Engineering in the19th-century: Britain and France  
Buchanan, R. A. The engineers : a history of the engineering profession in Britain, 1750-1914; cf. his "The Rise of Scientific Engineering in Britain", BJHS 18,2(1985), 218-33
Rolt, L.T.C. The Mechanicals
Watson, Garth. The civils : the story of the Institution of Civil Engineers
D. H. Porter, "Patronage, Professional Values, and Victorian Public Works: Engineering and Contracting in the Thames Embankment", Victorian Studies 31(1988), 319-49.
Chrimes, Mike. Civil engineering, 1839-1889 : a photographic history
Shinn, Terry. L'Ecole polytéchnique, 1794-1914
Day, Charles R. Education for the industrial world : the ecoles d'arts et metiers and the rise of French industrial engineering
Eda Kranakis, "Social Determinants of Engineering Practice: A Comparative View of France and America in the Nineteenth Century", Social Studies of Science 19(1989), 5-70
A. Picon, "Navier and the introduction of suspension bridges in France", Construction History 4(1988), 21-34; cf. Kranakis, "Navier's theory of suspension bridges", in From Ancient Omens to Statisical Mechanics (= Acta historica scientiarum naturalium et medicinalium, vol 39), and "The affair of the Invalides bridge", Jaarboek voor de Geschiedenis van Bedrijf en Techniek 4(1987), 106-130
5. 10/13  Engineering in the19th-century: Germany and the US  
Cornelius W. R. Gispen, Technical education and social status: The emergence of the mechanical engineering occupation in Germany, 1820-1890
Kees Gispen, New profession, old order : engineers and German society,1815-1914
Karl-Heinz Manegold, "Technology Academised: Education and Training of the Engineer in the 19th Century", in W. Krohn, et al., The Dynamics of Science and Technology; cf. his Universität, Technische Hochschule und Industrie: Ein Beitrag zur Emanzipation der Technik im 19. Jahrhundert unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bestrebungen Felix Kleins 
Susann Hensel, "Zur mathematischen Lehre im Gefüge der Ingenieurausbildung an den technischen Hochschulen Deutschlands im 19.Jahrhundert", Dresdener Beiträge zur Geschichte der Technikwissenschaften 17(1989), 37-55. 
--------, et al., Mathematik und Technik im 19. Jahrhundert in Deutschland: Soziale Auseinandersetzung und philosophische Problematik
--------, "Zur mathematischen Ausbildung der Ingenieure an den Technischen Hochschulen Deutschlands im letzten Drittel des 19. Jahrhunderts", NTM-Schriftenreihe Geschichte der Naturwissenschaft, Mathematik, Technik und Medizin, 26,1(1989), 33-47
Reynolds, Terry S. "The Engineer in 19th-Century America," in Terry S. Reynolds, The Engineer in America
Edwin T. Layton, Jr., "Mirror-Image Twins: The Communities of Science and Technology in 19th-Century America", T&C 12(1971), 562-580
--------, "Technology as Knowledge", T&C 15(1974), 31-41
--------, "American Ideologies of Science and Engineering", T&C 17(1976), 688-700
--------, "Scientific Technology, 1845-1900: The Hydraulic Turbine and the Origins of American Industrial Research", T&C 20(1979), 64-89
--------, "Millwrights and Engineers, Science, Social Roles and the Evolution of the Turbine in America", in W. Krohn, et al., The Dynamics of Science and Technology
Barton Hacker, "Engineering a New Order: Military Institutions, Technical Education, and the Rise of the Industrial State," T&C 34,1(1993), 1-27
6. 10/20  Professionalization  
Andrew D. Abbott, The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor
Robert Perucci and Joel Gerstl, The Engineers and the Social System
John H. Weiss, The Making of Technological Man: The Social Origins of French Engineering Education; cf. his articles:
     "Bridges and barriers: Narrowing access and changing structure in the French engineering profession, 1800-1850", in Professions and the French state, 1700-1900, ed. Gerald L. Geison,15-65
     "Changement de structure dans la profession d'ingénieur de 1800 à 1850", in L'ingéneiur dans la société française: études
Buchanan, R. A. The engineers : a history of the engineering profession in Britain, 1750-1914
Karl-Heinz Ludwig and Wolfgang Konig (eds.), Technik, Ingenieure und Gesellschaft: Geschichte des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure 1856-1981
Goran Ahlstrom, Engineers and industrial growth : higher technical education and the engineering profession during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: France, Germany, Sweden and England
Daniel Calhoun, The American Civil Engineer: Origins and Conflict
Monte Calvert, The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830-1910: Professional Cultures in Conflict
A. Michal McMahon, The making of a profession : a century of electrical engineering in America
7. 11/3  Engineering Education  
Peter Lundgreen, "Engineering Education in Europe and the U.S.A., 1750-1930: The Rise to Dominance of School Culture and the Engineering Professions, Annals of Science 47(1990), 33-75
James G. McGivern, The First Hundred Years of Engineering Education in the United States, 1807-1907 
Charles R. Mann, A Study of Engineering Education (New York, 1918)
William E. Wickenden, "A Comparative Study of Engineering Education in the U.S. and Europe", in Report of the Investigation of Engineering Education (Pittsburgh: Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, 1930)
James K. Finch, Trends in Engineering Education (New York, 1948) 
W. Bernard Carlson, "Academic Entrepreneurship and Engineering Education: Dugald C. Jackson and the MIT-GE Cooperative Engineering Course, 1907-1932", T&C 29(1988), p. 536-567
Gerhard Zweckbronner, Ingenieurausbildung im Konigreich Württemberg : Vorgeschichte, Einrichtung und Ausbau der Technischen Hochschule Stuttgart und ihrer Ingenieurwissenschaften bis 1900, eine Verknüpfung von Institutions- und Disziplingeschichte
Graeme Gooday, "Teaching Telegraphy and Electrotechnics in the Physics Laboratory: William Ayrton and the Creation of an Academic Space for Electrical Engineering in Britain", 1873-1884, History of Technology 13(1991), 73-111
Gordon W. Roderick and Michael D. Stephens, Scientific and Technical Education in 19th Century England
8. 11/10  Engineering and management: The politics of engineering in the US  
Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management
Thorsten Veblen, The Engineers and the Price System
Edwin T. Layton, Jr. The Revolt of the Engineers; cf. Peter Meiksins, "The 'Revolt of the Engineers' reconsidered", T&C 29(1988), 219-46
Jordan, John M. Machine-age ideology : social engineering and American liberalism, 1911-1939
Daniel Nelson, A Mental Revolution: Scientific Management Since Taylor
Judith A. Merkle, Management and Ideology: The Legacy of the International Scientific Management Movement
9. 11/17  Industrial Research  
Carty, J.J., "The Relation of Pure Science to Industrial Research", Science, new ser. 44(13 Oct1916), 511-518 [a classic statement by the founder of Bell Labs]
Mees, C.E.K., The Organization of Industrial Scientific Research (NY, 1920) [by the leading researcher at Kodak Labs]
Reich, Leonard S., The Making of American Industrial Research: Science and Business at G.E. and Bell, 1876-1926 (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 1985)
Wise, George, Willis R. Whitney: General Electric and the Origins of U.S. Industrial Research (NY: Columbia U.P.); cf. his "A New Role for Professional Scientists in Industry: Industrial Research at General Electric, 1900-1916", Technology and Culture 21(1980), 408-429
Kline, Ronald R., "Professionalism and the Corporate Engineer: Charles P. Steinmetz and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers", IEEE Trans. Educ. E-23(1980), 144-150; cf. his Steinmetz: Engineer and Socialist. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992.
David F. Noble, America by Design, Chap. 6
Michael Aaron Dennis, "Accounting for research: New histories of corporate laboratories and the social history of American science", Social Studies of Science 17(1987), 479-518.
Hoddeson, Lillian, "The Emergence of Basic Research in the Bell Telephone System, 1875-1915)", Technology and Culture 22(1981), 512-544
Laporte, Deirdre, "Bell Laboratories: The Beginnings of Scientific Research in an Industrial Setting", Annals [of the] New York Academy of Sciences (1983), 85-100
Bowker, Geof, "L'essor de la recherche industrielle", in Elements d'histoire des sciences, ed. Michel Serres (Paris : Bordas, 1989), 469-491.
Shinn, Terry, "The genesis of French industrial research, 1880-1940", Social Science Information 19(1980), 607-640
10. 12/1  Engineering and the Military-Industrial (-Academic) Complex  
Geiger, Roger L. Research and relevant knowledge : American research universities since World War II; cf his "Science, Universities, and National Defense, 1945-70", OSIRIS 7(1992), 26-48
Leslie, Stuart W. The Cold War and American science: the military-industrial-academic complex at MIT and Stanford; cf. his "Playing the Education Game to Win: The Military and Interdisciplinary Research at Stanford, HSPBS 18(1987), 55-88
Margaret B.W. Graham, "Industrial Research in the Age of Big Science", Research on Technological Innovation, Management and Policy, Vol. 2, 47-79
John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State
Kenneth Flamm, Creating the Computer: Government, Industry, and High Technology
Robert Kargon and W. Stuart Leslie, "Imagined Geographies: Princeton, Stanford and the Boundaries of Useful Knowledge in Postwar America," Minerva 32 (Summer 1994)121-143
"Electronics and the Geography of Innovation in Post-War America" History and Technology 11 (1994)217-231
Henry Etzkowitz, "The Making of an Entrepreneurial University: The Traffic Among MIT, Industry, and the Military, 1860-1960", in E. Mendelsohn et al., Science, Technology, and the Military (= Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook, 12), 515-40
11. 12/8  Engineers and the Transfer of Technology  
Daniel Headrick, Tools of Empire and  The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850-1940
William Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire
Kendall E. Bailes, Technology and Science under Lenin and Stalin
Loren Graham, The ghost of the executed engineer : technology and the fall of the Soviet Union
Mark R. Beissinger, Scientific management, socialist discipline, and Soviet power
Steve Smith, "Taylorism Rules OK? Bolshevism, Taylorism, and the Technical Intelligentsia in the Soviet Union, 1917-41", Radical Science Journal 13(1983), 3-27
12. 12/15 Software Engineering?  
M.S. Mahoney, "The Roots of Software Engineering", CWI Quarterly, 3,4(1990), 325-34
M.S. Mahoney, "Software and the Assembly Line" (draft article)
M.D. McIlroy, "On Mass-Produced Software Components", in Peter Naur, Brian Randell, J.N.Buxton (eds.), Software Engineering: Concepts and Techniques.  Proceedings of the NATO Conferences [Garmisch, 1968; Rome, 1969]. New York: Petrocelli/Charter, 1976, 88-95; look at rest of volume to get overview of topics discussed and the tone of the discussion
C.A.R. Hoare, "Programming: Sorcery or Science?", IEEE Software 1,2(1984), 5-16; reprinted as "Programming is an engineering profession" in his Essays in Computing Science
F.P. Brooks, Jr., "No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering", Computer (1987), 10-19
W.M. Turski, "And No Philosopher's Stone, Either", Information Processing 86, 1077-80 [(ST) QA75.5.I38 1986]
Mary Shaw, "Prospects for an Engineering Discipline of Software", IEEE Software 7,6(November 1990), 15-24
Gibbs, W. Wayte. "Software's chronic crisis" Scientific American 271, 3(1994), 86ff