Solway, A., Diuk, C., Cordova, N., Yee, D., Barto, Niv, Y. & Botvinick, M. (in press). Optimal behavioral hierarchy. PLOS Computational Biology.

Botvinick, M. & Weinstein, A. (in press). Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Series B.

Braver, T. S., Krug, M. K., Chiew, K. S., Kool, W., Westbrook, J. A., Clement, N. J., . . ., Somerville, L. H. (in press). Mechanisms of motivation-cognition interaction: challenges and opportunities. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. pdf

Gold, J.M., Kool, W., Botvinick, M., Hubzin, L., August, S., & Waltz, J. (in press). Cognitive effort avoidance and detection in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience.

Botvinick, M. & Cohen, J. D. (2014). Computational models of executive control: Charted territory and new frontiers. Cognitive Science. pdf

Kool, W. & Botvinick, M. (2014). A Labor/Leisure Tradeoff in Cognitive Control. Jounal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 131-141. pdf

Shenhav A. & Botvinick, M.M. (2013). Motivated action: New light on prefrontal-neuromodulatory circuits. Current Biology. Comment on Warden, M., Selimbeyoglu, A., Mirzabekov, J.J.,Lo, M., Thompson, K.R., Kim, S.Y., Adhikari, A., Tye, K.M., Frank, L.M., and Deisseroth, K. (2012). A prefrontal cortex-brainstem neuronal projection that controls response to behavioural challenge. Nature 492, 428-432. pdf

Kool, W., & Botvinick, M. (2013). The intrinsic cost of cognitive control. Behavioral Brain Sciences. Comment on Kurzban, R., Duckworth, A., Kable, J. W., & Myers, J. (in press). An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance. pdf

Shenhav A., Botvinick M.M., & Cohen J.D. (2013). The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function. Neuron. pdf

Kool, W., McGuire, J. T., Wang, G. J., & Botvinick, M. M. (2013). Neural and Behavioral Evidence for an Intrinsic Cost of Self-Control. PLOS ONE. 8, e72626. pdf supplement

Brunton, B., Botvinick, M. & Brody, C. (2013). Rats and humans can optimally accumulate evidence for decision-making. Science, 340, 95-98. pdf

Pereira, F., Detre, G. & Botvinick, M. (2013). Using Wikipedia to learn semantic feature representations of concrete concepts in neuroimaging experiments. Arificial Intelligence, 194, 240-252. pdf

Schapiro, A. Rogers, T., Cordova, N., Turk-Browne, N. & Botvinick, M. (2013). Neural representations of events arise from temporal community structure. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 486-492. pdf

Kool, W., Getz, S. & Botvinick, M. (2013). Neural representation of reward probability: Evidence from the Illusion of Control. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 852-861. pdf

Diuk, C., Botvinick, M. & Niv, Y. (2013). Two simultaneous, but separable, prediction errors in human ventral striatum. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 5797-5805. pdf

Botvinick, M. (2012). Hierarchical reinforcement learning and decision making. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 22, 956-962. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Toussaint, M. (2012). Planning as inference. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 485-588. pdf

Allen, K., Pereira, F., Botvinick, M. & Goldberg, A. (2012). Distinguishing grammatical constructions with fMRI pattern analysis. Brain and Language, 123, 174-182. pdf

Solway, A. & Botvinick, M. M. (2012). Goal-directed decision making as probabilistic inference: A computational framework and potential neural correlates. Psycholological Review, 119, 120-154. pdf

Pereira, F. & Botvinick, M. (2011). Classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging data using informative pattern features. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. 940-946. pdf

Pereira, F. & Botvinick, M. (2011). Information mapping with pattern classifiers: a comparative study. NeuroImage, 56, 476-496. pdf

Yeung, N., Cohen, J. D. & Botvinick, M. (2011). Errors of interpretation and modeling: a reply to Grinband et al., NeuroImage, 57, 316-319. pdf

Cikara, M., Botvinick, M. & Fiske, S. (2011). Us versus them: Social identification shapes neural responses to intergroup competition and harm. Psychological Science. 22, 306-313. pdf

Pereira, F., Detre, G. & Botvinick, M. (2011). Generating text from functional brain images. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5, 72. pdf

Ribas-Fernandes, J., Solway, A., Diuk, C., Barto, A. G., Niv, Y. & Botvinick, M. (2011). A neural signature of hierarchical reinforcement learning. Neuron, 71, 370-379. pdf

Allen, K., Ibara, S., Seymour, A., Cordova, N. & Botvinick, M. (2010). Abstract structural representations of goal-directed action, Psychological Science, 21, 1518-1524. pdf

Kool, W., McGuire, J. T., Rosen, Z., & Botvinick, M. M. (2010). Decision making and the avoidance of cognitive demand. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 665-682. pdf

McClelland, J. L., Botvinick, M. M., Noelle, D. C., Plaut, D. C., Rogers, T. T., Seidenberg, M. S., & Smith, L. B. (2010). Letting structure emerge: Connectionist and dynamical systems approaches to understanding cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 348-356. pdf

Cole, M., Yeung, N., Freiwald, W., & Botvinick, M. (2010). Interpreting anterior cingulate function across species: A reply to Schall and Emeric (2010). Brain, Behavior and Evolution.

McGuire, J. T. & Botvinick, M. M. (2010). Prefrontal cortex, cognitive control, and the registration of decision costs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 7922-7926. pdf

McGuire, J. T. & Botvinick, M. (2010). Conflict monitoring, mental effort and decision making. In B. Buya, Ed.: Effortless Attention: A new Perspective on the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. In press.

Pereira, F., Mitchell, T. & Botvinick, M. (2010). Machine learning classifiers and fMRI: a tutorial overview. NeuroImage, 45, S199-S209. pdf

Botvinick, M. M. & Plaut, D. C. (2009). Empirical and computational support for context-dependent representations of serial order: Reply to Bowers, Damian and Davis (2009). Psychological Review. 116, 998-1002. pdf

Botvinick, M. M., Wang, J., Cowan, E., & Houk, J. (2009). An analysis of immediate serial recall performance in a macaque. Animal Cognition, 12, 671-678. pdf

Botvinick, M. M., Niv, Y. & Barto, A. C. (2009). Hierarchically organized behavior and its neural foundations: a reinforcement learning perspective. Cognition, 113, 262-280. pdf

Botvinick, M. M. & Rosen, Z. (2009). Anticipation of cognitive demand during decision-making. Psychological Research, 73, 835-842. pdf

Botvinick, M. M. & Huffstetler, S., McGuire, J. T. (2009). Effort discounting in human nucleus accumbens. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 9(1), 16-27. pdf

Botvinick, M., Buxbaum, L. & Jax, S. (2009). Toward an integrated account of object and action selection: A computational analysis and empirical findings from reaching-to-grasp and tool use. Neuropsychologia, 47, 671-683. pdf

Cole, M. W., Freiwald, W., Yeung, N. & Botvinick, M. (2009). When data from humans and monkeys diverge: The case of the anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Neurosciences, 32, 566-574. pdf

Pereira, F., Mitchell, T. & Botvinick, M. M. (2009). Machine learning classifiers and fMRI: a tutorial overview. NeuroImage, 45, S199-S209. pdf

Botvinick, M. M. (2008). Hierarchical models of behavior and prefrontal function. (Invited review). Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 201-208. pdf

Botvinick, M. M., An, J. (2008). Goal-directed decision making in prefrontal cortex: a computational framework. In: Koller, D., Bengio, Y., Y., Schuurmans, D., Bouttou, L., & Culotta, A. (Eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), Vol 21. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Watanabe, T. (2007). From numerosity to ordinal rank: A gain-field model of serial order representation in cortical working memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 8636-8642. pdf

Botvinick, M. (2007). Multilevel structure in behavior and in the brain: a computational model of Fuster's hierarchy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences, 362, 1615-1626. pdf

Botvinick, M. (2007). Conflict monitoring and decision making: Reconciling two perspectives on anterior cingulate function. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366. pdf

McClure, S.M., Botvinick, M.M., Yeung, N., Greene, J.D., Cohen, J.D. (2007) Conflict monitoring in cognition-emotion competition. In J.J. Gross, Ed.: Handbook of Emotion Regulation (p. 204-226). New York: Guilford.

Nieuwenhuis, S., Schweizer, T.S., Mars, R.B., Botvinick, M.M., & Hajcak, G. (2007). Error-likelihood prediction in the medial frontal cortex: A critical evaluation. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 1570-1581. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Plaut, D. C. (2006). Such stuff as habits are made on: A reply to Cooper and Shallice (2006), Psychological Review, 113, 917-928. [Postscript: The way forward, 928.] pdf

Botvinick, M. & Plaut, D. C. (2006). Short-term memory for serial order: A recurrent neural network model. Psychological Review, 113, 201-233. pdf

Thompson-Schill, S. L. & Botvinick, M. M. (2006). Resolving conflict: A response to Martin and Cheng (2006). Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13, 402-408. pdf

Botvinick, M., Jha, A. P., Bylsma, L. M., Fabian, S. A., Solomon, P. E. & Prkachin, K. M. (2005). Viewing facial expressions of pain engages cortical areas involved in the direct experience of pain. NeuroImage, 25, 312-319. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Bylsma, L. M. (2005). Regularization in short-term memory for serial order. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31, 351-358. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Bylsma, L. M. (2005). Distraction and action slips in an everyday task: Evidence for a dynamic representation of task context. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12, 1011-1017. pdf

Botvinick, M. (2005). Effects of domain-specific knowledge on memory for serial order. Cognition, 97, 135-151. pdf

Ullsperger, M., Von Cramon, Y., Bylsma, L. & Botvinick, M. (2005). The conflict adaptation effect: It's not just priming. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 467-472. pdf

Botvinick, M., Braver, T. S., Yeung, N., Ullsperger, M., Carter, C. S. & Cohen, J. D. (2004). Conflict monitoring: computational and empirical studies. In: Posner, M. I. (Ed.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention (p. 91-104). New York: Guilford Press.

Botvinick, M. (2004). Probing the neural basis of body "ownership". Science, 305, 782-3. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Plaut, D. C. (2004) Doing without schema hierarchies: A recurrent connectionist approach to routine sequential action and its pathologies. Psychological Review, 111, 395-429.

Botvinick, M., Cohen, J. D. & Carter, C. S. (2004). Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: An update. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 8, 539-546. pdf

Yeung, N., Botvinick, M. M. & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The neural basis of error-detection: Conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 111,931-959. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Plaut, D. (2003). Constructive processes in immediate serial recall: A recurrent network model of the bigram frequency effect. In: B. Kokinov & W. Hirst (Eds.) Constructive Memory (p. 129-137). Sofia: New Bulgarian University. pdf

Botvinick, M. & Plaut, D. C. (2002). Representing task context: proposals based on a connectionist model of action. Psychological Research, 66, 298-311. pdf

Graziano, M., Cohen, J.D. & Botvinick, M. (2002). How the brain represents the body. Attention and Performance XIX: Common Mechanisms in Perception and Action. Prinz, W. and Hommel, B. (Eds.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 136-157

Van Veen, V., Cohen, J. D., Botvinick, M. M., Stenger, V. A. & Carter, C. S. (2001). Anterior cingulate cortex, conflict monitoring, and levels of processing. NeuroImage, 14, 1302-1308.

Botvinick, M., Braver, T., Barch, D. Carter, C. & Cohen, J. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108 (3), 624-652. pdf

Carter, C. S., MacDonald A. M., III, Botvinick M., Stenger V. A. & Cohen, J. D. (2000). Parsing executive processes: Control vs. evaluation in the frontal cortex. Biological Psychiatry, 346, 104S.

Cohen, J. D., Botvinick, M., & Carter, C. S. (2000). Anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex: Who’s in control? Nature Neuroscience, 3, 421-423.

Botvinick, M., Nystrom, L., Fissell, K., Carter, C. & Cohen, J. (1999). Conflict monitoring vs. selection-for-action in anterior cingulate cortex. Nature, 402, 179-181.

Carter, S. C., Botvinick, M. M., & Cohen, J. D. (1999). The contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex to executive processes in cognition. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 10, 49-57.

Botvinick, M. & Cohen, J. D. (1998). Rubber hand ‘feels’ what eyes see. Nature, 391, 756.

Carter, C. S., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M. M., Noll, D., & Cohen, J. D. (1998) Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance. Science, 280, 747-749.