PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
WOODROW WILSON SCHOOL
Spring 2000

 

WWS 402e: Policy Task force on
Air Quality in India and China: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally
5 Ivy Lane, Seminar Room
Tuesdays, 7:00- 9:30 PM

Task Force Directors:

Prof. Denise Mauzerall
5 Ivy Lane, Room 201
8-2498
mauzeral@princeton.edu


Graduate Consultants:

Xiaoping Wang
Ph.D. student
5 Ivy Lane
wang@princeton.edu

Senior Commissioner:

Ryan Baum
ryanbaum@princeton.edu

 



Mr. Daniel A. Reifsnyder
5 Ivy Lane, Room 301
8-2758

dreifsny@princeton.edu



Mahesh Phadnis
Post Doctoral student
5 Ivy Lane
mphadnis@princeton.edu

 

 

 

 

Background

Many Asian cities face environmental crises due to severe air pollution. Deteriorating air quality is a result of rapid economic expansion, population growth, increased industrial output and an unprecedented surge in motor vehicle traffic. Impacts of air pollution are well-known – adverse health effects, rising health costs, damage to natural vegetation and agriculture, and deterioration of cultural monuments and buildings.

China and India are vast countries undergoing rapid industrialization, possessing enormous and increasing populations, and suffering from severe air pollution. Together they contribute nearly 20 percent of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere annually from human activity. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas contributing to climate change. The share of carbon dioxide that China and India emit will increase in the future as they continue to develop. Since air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions both result from burning fossil fuels, China and India may see advantages in fuel switching, increased energy efficiency, and the use of renewable forms of energy to reduce local air pollution. Such changes could also limit the growth in their greenhouse gas emissions.

Questions this task force will address include: What practical steps can China and India take in the coming decades to improve local air quality and lower the rate at which their carbon dioxide emissions are increasing? What can each country learn from the other regarding energy and air pollution strategies? How can the United States and others in the developed world support these efforts?

The aim of this task force will be to develop co-control strategies that work to improve air quality in China and India while limiting the rate of increase in their greenhouse gas emissions. These strategies will need to be attractive to the individual countries involved while also attracting bilateral and multilateral donors able to support their implementation.

 

 

Structure and Calendar

The goal of the task force is for each student to write a research paper which will form the basis of the group report. Sessions in the early part of the semester will consist of lectures and relatively extensive reading. Later sessions will focus more on individual research topics, visits by experts in the field, and the creation of the group report. Readings for the task force are either contained in your course packet, the book Energizing China (available for purchase), are on reserve in the Woodrow Wilson School library, are available on world wide web sites (described below and identified during the semester) or will be distributed in class. Additional material may certainly be used in individual research. The graduate consultants for the course are intended as resources for you. They all have specific expertise in this area and may be able to give you insights from their own experience and help you find material useful for your research papers.

The calendar for the task force described below is subject to modification as the task force progresses. Our initial plan is that each student will spend the first eight weeks of the semester on a research paper that will form the basis of the group report. Paper outlines will be due on Friday March 3 (at the end of week 5), for discussion with the directors and advice from the graduate consultants during week 6 (mid-term week). Semi-final individual papers will be due on Friday March 31 (at the end of week 8 – the second week following spring break). Week 9 will be used for consultation with the directors (no group meeting is scheduled). In week 10 (April 11) we will have oral presentations of individual reports (if possible we will schedule an additional session besides April 11 for this) and will discuss the content of the final report. A draft of the final report, prepared by the senior commissioner, will be due for discussion at the session on April 18 with a final report available for approval on April 25. Final revised papers will be due by Monday May 1, 2000.

 

Individual papers are expected to be approximately 25 double-spaced pages in length, with tables, graphs and references additional. Each report should be preceded by an abstract which distills the essence of the findings of the report into one paragraph.

 

Unless noted, the required reading listed below is either included in your course packet or is in the book Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998.

 

 

Session Topics

 

Week 1. February 1, 2000. Framing the problem. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion: Air pollution and climate change

Sweet, William, and Elizabeth Bretz. "Toward Carbon-Free Energy". IEEE Spectrum, November 1999, pp. 28-33.

Nielsen, C. P. and McElroy, M.B., chapter 1. Introduction and Overview, In: Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 1-63.

Wang, Yanjia and He Kebin. "The Air Pollution Picture In China". IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp.55-58.

Lelieveld, Jos, Veerabhadran Ramanathan, and Paul J. Crutzen. "The Global Effects of Asian Haze". IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp.50-54.

Barnes, D. F., van der Plas, R., Floor, A., "Tackling the rural energy problem in developing countries", Finance and Development, 1997.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995, "Technical Summary", pp.13-47. (If you don’t have time to read the entire chapter, please read sections A-C (pp. 13-30)).

 

Week 2. February 8, 2000. China situation

Clear Water, Blue Skies: China’s Environment in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997. (on reserve in the WWS library)

Chapters 1-5, pp. 1-72; ch. 8, pp. 103-114.

Weidou, Ni, Sze, Nien Dak, chapter 2 "Energy supply and development in China", In Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 67-117.

Florig, H. Keith . "China’s Air Pollution Risks". Environmental Science & Technology News. Vol. 31 no.6. (1997).

Sweet, William, and Marlowe Hood. "Can China Consume Less Coal?". IEEE Spectrum, November 1999, pp. 39-47.

 

 

Week 3. February 15, 2000. Indian situation

Singh, Vir and Elizabeth A. Bretz. "India’s Power Struggles". IEEE Spectrum, November 1999, pp. 48-56.

Naidu, B.S.K. "Indian scenario of renewable energy for sustainable development", Energy Policy 24, 575-581, 1996.

 

Srivastava, L., "Energy and CO2 emissions in India: increasing trends and alarming portents, Energy Policy, 25, 1997.

 

Ranganathan,V., Hydropower and environment in India, Energy Policy, 25, 435-438, 1997.

Cropper, M. L., et al., "The Health benefits of air pollution control in Delhi", Amer. J. Agr. Econ., 79, 1625-1629, 1997.

Skim one of the two following World Bank reports, on reserve at the WWS library.

Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia: Kathmandu Valley Report. Edited by Jitendra Shah and Tanvi Nagpal. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia: Greater Mumbai Report . Edited by Jitendra Shah and Tanvi Nagpal. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

Peruse these Indian web sites for an Indian perspective on the situation:

Tata Energy Research Institute (New Delhi)

http://www.teriin.org/default.htm

Center for Science & Engineering based in New Delhi

http://oneworld.org/cse

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (Mumbai)

http://www.igidr.ac.in

 

 

Week 4. February 22, 2000. Technology options and health benefits

Kozloff, Keith, "Rethinking development assistance for renewable electricity sources", Environment, 37, pp.7-37, 1995.

Fang Dong, Li Ping, Lew, D., Kammen, D., Wilson, R. "Strategic options for reducing CO2 in China: Improving energy efficiency and using alternatives to fossil fuels, chapter 3 in: Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 119-165.

Wang, Ziaodong, and Kirk R. Smith. Near-term Health Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Reductions: A Proposed Method for Assessment and Application to China. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998.

 

 

Week 5. February 29, 2000. Policy Barriers and Incentives

Sathaye, Jayant, Jonathan Sinton, and Tom Heller. "Doing Better with Less Energy", IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp.42-49.

Logan, Jeffrey. "Balancing the Books on Energy Pricing". IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp.59-63.

Hood, Marlowe, and William Sweet. "Energy Policy and Politics in China". IEEE Spectrum, November 1999, pp. 34-38.

Wang, Hanchen, Liu, Bingjiang, "Policymaking for environmental protection in China", In Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp.371- 403.

Alford, W., Yuanyuan, Shen, "The Limits of the law in addressing China’s environmental dilemma", In: Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 405-429.

Panayotou, T. "The Effectiveness and efficiency of environmental policy in China, In: Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 431-472.

Reducing Greenhouse Gases & Air Pollution. Washington, D.C.: State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators, Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials, 1999.

This article gives examples of harmonized strategies in the United States for addressing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions simultaneously.

Chayes, Abram, Kim, C. "China and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change", In Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 504-540.

 

Paper outlines due, Friday March 3, 2000.

 

Week 6. March 7, 2000. Clean Coal and Renewable Energy Options – hydro, wind, solar

Okarsson, Karin, Anders Berglund, Rolf Deling, Ulrika Snellman, Olle Stenbäck, and Jack J. Fritz. A Planner’s Guide for Selecting Clean-Coal Technologies for Power Plants. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

Read the abstract and executive summary of this report. Then, if this is the technology on which you will focus, read the chapters most useful for your research paper.

Renewable Energy: Sources for fuels and electricity, Island Press, 1993.

This book has extensive coverage of hydro, wind and solar energy and covers the technologies, economics, resources and regional strategies. Read chapter 1 (in your course packet), then choose one technology in which you’re particularly interested and read the relevant chapters. The book is on reserve at the WWS library.

 

Spring Break (March 11 – 19, 2000)

 

Week 7. March 21, 2000. Client activities – World Bank

Rich, Bruce, Mortgaging the Earth. Boston: Beacon Press, Chapters 3 and 10, pp.49-80, 281-318, 1994.

This text provides a critical history of the World Bank. The complete book is on reserve in the WWS library.

Lock, R., "Financing of private power development and power sector reform in emerging nations", Energy Policy, 23, 955-965, 1995.

Razavi, H., "Oil and gas financing by the World Bank", Energy Policy, 23, 1001-1007, 1995.

 

Please examine the World Bank web sites, listed below, for information on their current environmental activities in India and China.

World Bank sites:

Environment

http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/ext/language.nsf/44723e10ef66df7d852566740076a09c/38e1cf5deaedb0bb8525675900537591?OpenDocument

Rural and renewable energy

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/ruralenergy.htm

 

India:

General information on South Asia:

http://wbln1018.worldbank.org/sar/sa.nsf

Environmental issues in the power sector:

http://wbln1018.worldbank.org/sar/sa.nsf/a22044d0c4877a3e852567de0052e0fa/fd6e149ab4839bd9852567e800730b0e?OpenDocument

World Bank support for India’s energy sector: http://wbln1018.worldbank.org/sar/sa.nsf/a22044d0c4877a3e852567de0052e0fa/89696a3592becc0a852567df006a0e0b?OpenDocument

 

China and East Asia

General information on East Asia and the Pacific:

http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/eap/eap.nsf

Alternative energy / energy efficiency in Asia:

http://www.worldbank.org/astae/

World Bank’s environmental portfolio in East Asia:

http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/eap/eap.nsf/cf72f4c3069583b9852567c900790a2d/3eab0240b93a32de852567ed00581c45?OpenDocument

 

 

Week 8. March 28, 2000. Consultations

 

Research papers due, Friday March 31, 2000.

 

Week 9. April 4, 2000. Oral presentations of individual research papers start.

 

Week 10. April 11, 2000. Oral presentations continue. Discussion of final report.

 

Week 11. April 18, 2000. Presentation of final report. Discussion of revisions.

 

Week 12. April 25, 2000. Approval of final report.

 

** Final revised papers are due by Monday May 1, 2000. **

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References (on reserve at the WWS library)

Books:

Clear Water, Blue Skies: China’s Environment in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

Mortgaging the Earth., Rich, Bruce, Boston: Beacon Press, 1994.

Renewable Energy . Edited by Thomas B. Johansson, Henry Kelly, Amulya K.N. Reddy, and Robert H. Williams. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993.

Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, edited by McElroy, Nielsen, and Lydon, Harvard University Press, 1998.

Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Edited by J.T. Houghton, et al., Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Climate change, 1995 : Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: scientific-technical analyses, Contribution of WGII to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Watson, R. et al., Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Climate Change 1995: The Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change,Contribution of Working Group 3 to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Edited by Bruce, et al., Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia: Guidebook. Edited by

Jitendra Shah, Tanvi Nagpal, and Carter J. Brandon. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia: Kathmandu Valley Report. Edited by Jitendra Shah and Tanvi Nagpal. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia: Greater Mumbai Report . Edited by Jitendra Shah and Tanvi Nagpal. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

A Planner’s Guide for Selecting Clean-Coal Technologies for Power Plants., Okarsson, Karin, Anders Berglund, Rolf Deling, Ulrika Snellman, Olle Stenbäck, and Jack J. Fritz, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington D.C., 1997.

Clean Coal Technologies for Developing Countries. , Tavoulareas, E. Stratos, and Jean-Pierre Charpentier, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C.,1995.

Energy Demand in Five Major Asian Developing Countries, Ishiguro, Masayasu, and Takamasa Akiyama, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C.,1995.

Applying Market-Based Instruments to Environmental Policies in China and OECD Countries, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris: OECD, 1997.

 

 

Documents:

Streets, David, Gregory Carmichael, Markus Amann, and Richard L. Arndt. "Energy Consumption and Acid Deposition in Northeast Asia". Ambio. Vol. 28 no. 2. (1999): pp. 134-143.

Streets, D.G., and S.T. Waldhoff. "Present and Future Emissions of Air Pollution in China: SO2 , NOc , and CO". Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 34 (2000): pp. 363-374.

Sweet, William, and Elizabeth Bretz. " Addressing the Coal Conundrum". IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp.40-41.

Sweet, William, and Elizabeth Bretz. "Site Visits Illustrate Advanced Grid Design". IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp. 64-68.

Sathaye, Jayant, and N.H. Ravindrantah. "Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries". Annual Reviews of Energy and the Environment. Vol. 23. (1998): pp. 387-437.

Brown, Marilyn A., Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey. "Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges". Annual Reviews Energy and the Environment. Vol. 23. (1998): pp. 287-385

Martinot, Eric, Jonathan E. Stinton, and Brent M. Haddad. " International Technology Transfer for Climate Change Mitigtion and the Cases of Russia and China". Annual Reviews Energy and the Environment. Vol. 22. (1998): pp. 357-401.

Dawel, Zhao, and Kong Guohui. "Acidification in China: Assessment Based on Studies at Forested Sites from Chongqing to Guangzhou". Ambio. Vo. 28 no. 6. (1999): pp. 522-530.

Wu, Zongxin, Jiankun He, Aling Zhang, Qing Xu, Shuyu Zhang and Jayant Sathaye.

"A Macro-Assessment of Technology Options for CO2 Mitigation in China’s Energy System". Energy Policy. Vol. 22 no. 11. (1994): pp.907-913.

Mongia, Nandita, Jayant Sathaye, and Puran Mongia. "Energy Use and Carbon Implications in India". Energy Policy. Vol. 22 no. 11. (1994): pp.894-906.

 

 

Packet of information explaining the impacts of particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ozone.

"Airborne Particulate Matter". Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.201-207.

"Airborne Particulate Matter: Pollution Prevention and Control". Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook.. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.235-239.

"Nitrogen Oxides". Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.223-226.

"Nitrogen Oxides: Pollution Prevention and Control". Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook.. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.245-249.

"Sulfur Oxides: Pollution Prevention and Control". Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.258-260.

"Ground-Level Ozone". Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.227-230.

 

Packet of information on financing energy projects.

Bond, Gary, and Laurence Carter. "Financing Energy Projects". Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp.967-975.

Himberg, Harvey. "The View from the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)". Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp.977-980.

Carstairs, Jamie, and David Ehrhardt. "Financial Structure in the Indian Power Sector".. Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp.981-990.

Humphries, Michael E. "The Competitive Environment for Oil and Gas Financing". Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp.991-1000.

 

Zutshi, Priyamvada, and Preety M. Bhnadari. "Costing Power Generation". Energy Policy. January 1994, pp.75-80.