PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

WOODROW WILSON SCHOOL

Spring 2001

 

 

WWS 402e:  Policy Task force

 

Energy, Air Pollution, and Climate Change:  How China Matters

 

006 Wallace Hall

Wednesdays, 7:00- 9:30 PM

 

 

Task Force Director:

 

Prof.  Denise Mauzerall

Robertson Hall, Room 406

258-2498

mauzeral@princeton.edu

 

 

Senior Commissioner:

 

Arthur Steinbock

steinbck@princeton.edu

 

 

Graduate Consultant:

 

Xiaoping Wang

Ph.D. student

410A Robertson Hall

258-2392

xwang@princeton.edu

 

 

 


 

Background

          

Many cities in developing countries face environmental crises due to severe air pollution.  Deteriorating air quality is a result of rapid industrial development, increasing motor vehicle traffic, population growth, and general economic expansion.  Impacts of air pollution are severe and well-known – adverse health effects and increasing health costs, decreased visibility, damage to natural vegetation and agriculture, and deterioration of cultural monuments and buildings.  As developing countries industrialize, their emissions of greenhouse gases also increase.

 

China is a vast country undergoing rapid industrialization, possessing an enormous and increasing population, and suffering from severe air pollution particularly in urban areas.  It currently contributes about 15 percent of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere annually from human activity.  Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas contributing to climate change.  The share of carbon dioxide that China will emit in the future will increase as it continues to develop and its population continues to grow.  Since air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions both result from burning fossil fuels, China may see advantages in fuel switching, increased energy efficiency, and the use of renewable forms of energy to reduce local air pollution.  Such changes could also limit the growth in greenhouse gas emissions.

 

Questions this task force will address include:  What practical steps can China take in the coming decades to improve local air quality and lower the rate at which their carbon dioxide emissions are increasing?  What energy technologies are appropriate to accomplish both objectives?  How can the United States and multilateral lending organizations support these efforts? 

 

The aim of this task force will be to develop co-control strategies that would improve air quality in China while limiting the rate of increase of their greenhouse gas emissions.  These strategies will need to be attractive to China while also attracting bilateral and multilateral donors able to support their initial implementation.  We will examine World Bank energy programs and the criticism the Bank has come under due to its early lack of attention to environmental issues in its loan practices.  We will then recommend programs to the World Bank that it could implement to encourage the use of energy technologies that simultaneously reduce air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions in China.

          

 

Structure and Calendar

 

           The goal of the task force is for each student to write a research paper that will contribute to the group report.  Sessions in the early part of the semester will consist of lectures and relatively extensive reading.  Later sessions will focus more on individual research topics, establishment of the objectives of the group report, and finally on the presentation of the group report to World Bank staff in Washington D.C.   Readings for the task force are either contained in your course packet, the books Energizing China and Mortgaging the Earth (available for purchase), are on reserve in the Woodrow Wilson School library, are available on world wide web sites (described below and identified during the semester) or will be distributed in class. 

 

The large collection of books and articles on reserve in the WWS library is intended as a resource for your research.   The use of additional material is also encouraged.  Xiaoping Wang, the graduate consultant, and Arthur Steinbock, the senior commissioner, are intended as resources for you.  Please feel free to bounce ideas and questions off them.   They both have specific expertise in this area and may be able to give you insights from their own experience and help you find material useful for your research papers.

 

The calendar for the task force described below is subject to modification as the semester progresses.   Our initial plan is that each student will spend the first eight weeks of the semester on a research paper that will form the basis of the group report.  Paper outlines will be due on Friday March 9 (at  the end of week 5), for discussion with the director and advice from the graduate consultant during week 6 (mid-term week).  Week 7 will be used to discuss how to integrate the individual research topics into a group research project and report.  Week 8 will be used for consultation with the director (no group meeting is scheduled).   Semi-final individual papers will be due on Friday April 6 (at the end of week 8 – the second week following spring break).  Week 9 and 10 (April 11 and 18) is for oral presentations of individual reports, and for discussion of the content of the final report.  A draft of the final report, prepared by the senior commissioner, will be presented at the session on April 25 with a final report available for approval on May 2. Final revised papers will be due by Friday May 4, 2000.  We will make a trip to The World Bank headquarters to present the final report to World Bank staff the week of May 7, 2000.

 

           Individual papers are expected to be approximately 25 double-spaced pages in length, with tables, graphs and references additional.  Each report should be preceded by an abstract which distills the essence of the findings of the report into one paragraph.  The final group report will be at most 25 pages and will synthesize the findings and recommendations of the individual papers.

 

Unless noted, the required reading listed below is either included in your course packet or is in the book Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998.

 

 

 

Session  Topics

 

 

Week 1.  February 7, 2001.   Framing the problem.  Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion:  Air pollution and climate change

 

Pan, Philip, “Scientists Issue Dire Prediction on Warming”, Washington Post, January 23, 2001.

 

Hileman, Bette, “Pace of Global Change Quickens”, Chemical and Engineering News, January 29, 2001.

 

Kerr, R. “Can the Kyoto Climate Treaty Be Saved From Itself?” Science, 290, 920-921, November 3, 2000.

 

Drennen, TE. Erickson, JD. “Who Will Fuel China?” Science, 279, 1483, March 1998.

 

Sweet, William, and Elizabeth Bretz. “Toward Carbon-Free Energy”. IEEE Spectrum, November 1999, pp. 28-33.

 

Nielsen, C. P. and McElroy, M.B., chapter 1.  Introduction and Overview, In: Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 1-63.

 

Wang, Yanjia and He Kebin. “The Air Pollution Picture In China”. IEEE Spectrum,  36 no. 12. (1999): pp.55-58.

 

Lelieveld, Jos, Veerabhadran Ramanathan, and  Paul J. Crutzen. “The Global Effects of Asian Haze”. IEEE Spectrum,  36 no. 12. (1999): pp.50-54.

 

Barnes, D. F., van der Plas, R., Floor, A., “Tackling the rural energy problem in developing countries”,  Finance and Development,  1997.

 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group I, Third Assessment Report, Summary for Policy Makers, Shaghai Draft, January 21, 2001. 

 

 

Week 2.   February 14, 2001.   Chinese energy/air pollution situation

 

Clear Water, Blue Skies: China’s Environment in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.  Chapters 1-4, pp. 1-58; ch. 6, pp. 73-85.

 

Kozloff, Keith, “Rethinking development assistance for renewable electricity sources”, Environment, 37, pp.7-37, 1995.

 

Sinton, JE, Fridley, DG. What Goes Up: Recent Trends in China's Energy Consumption, Energy Policy, 28: 671-687, 2000.

 

Weidou, Ni, Sze, Nien Dak,  chapter 2 “Energy supply and development in China”, In Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 67-117.

 

Florig, H. Keith . “China’s Air Pollution Risks”. Environmental Science & Technology News. Vol. 31 no.6. (1997).

 

Wang, Ziaodong, and Kirk R. Smith. Near-term Health Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Reductions: A Proposed Method for Assessment and Application to China. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998.

 

Sweet, William, and Marlowe Hood. “Can China Consume Less Coal?”. IEEE Spectrum, November 1999, pp. 39-47.

 

Reducing Greenhouse Gases & Air Pollution. Washington, D.C.: State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators, Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials, 1999.

This article gives examples of strategies for simultaneously addressing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.  The paper focuses on the United States, but the same concepts should be considered for China.

 

 

Week 3.  February 21, 2001.  Overview of Chinese government structure and energy and environmental policy.  Guest speakers:  Prof. Eric Thun and Ms. Xiaoping Wang.

 

Hood, Marlowe, and William Sweet. “Energy Policy and Politics in China”. IEEE Spectrum, November 1999, pp. 34-38.

 

Logan, Jeffrey. “Balancing the Books on Energy Pricing”. IEEE Spectrum,  36 no. 12. (1999): pp.59-63.

 

Sathaye, Jayant, Jonathan Sinton, and Tom Heller. “Doing Better with Less Energy”, IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp.42-49.

 

Wang, Hanchen, Liu, Bingjiang, “Policymaking for environmental protection in China”, In Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp.371- 403.

 

Alford, W., Yuanyuan, Shen, “The Limits of the law in addressing China’s environmental dilemma”, In:  Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 405-429.

 

Panayotou, T. “The Effectiveness and efficiency of environmental policy in China, In:  Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 431-472.

 

Chayes, Abram, Kim, C. “China and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”, In Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 504-540.

 

 

Week 4.  February 28,  2001.  World Bank Structure and Environmental Policies,

Guest Speaker, Dr. Todd Johnson, World Bank, Environment Department.

 

The World Bank, Knowledge and Resources for Development, World Bank, 2001.

This pamphlet provides a brief overview of the structure and official goals of the Bank. (Class handout). 

 

Rich, Bruce, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment and the Crisis of Development.  Boston: Beacon Press, 1994. 

 

Read Chapters 1, 3 and 10, and as much of the rest of the book as you can.

 

This book is a critical history of the World Bank.  It describes the effect Bank policies have had on the societies and environments of the countries in which it operates.  

 

 

Please examine the World Bank web sites, listed below, for information on the Bank’s current energy and environmental activities in China.

 

World Bank web sites:

 

Alternative energy / energy efficiency in Asia:

http://www.worldbank.org/astae/

 

Rural and renewable energy

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/ruralenergy.htm

 

Environment

http://www.worldbank.org/environment/

 

 

As a contrast to the large loans that are typically awarded by the World Bank, examine some of the following web sites that describe micro-finance organizations. 

 

Micro-finance web sites:

 

The virtual library on micro-credit:  http://www.gdrc.org/icm/

 

The Micro-finance network:  http://www.bellanet.org/partners/mfn/

 

Look also at what the World Bank is doing in the area of micro-finance:

http://www-esd.worldbank.org/sbp/home.htm

 

 

Week 5.  March 7, 2001.  Renewable Energy Options – hydro, wind, solar, biomass

 

Renewable Energy:  Sources for fuels and electricity, Island Press, 1993.

This book has extensive coverage of hydro, wind and solar energy and covers the technologies, economics, resources and regional strategies.  Read chapter 1 (in your course packet), then choose one technology in which you’re particularly interested and read the relevant chapters.  The book is on reserve at the WWS library.

 

Moreira, JR, et al., Energy Supply In:  Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer, Special Report of IPCC Working Group III, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

 

Byrne J, Shen B, Wallace W. “The Economics of Sustainable Energy for Rural Development: A Study of Renewable Energy in Rural China.” Energy Policy 26(1): 45-54, 1998.

 

Sayigh, A (1999). “Renewable Energy - the Way Forward.” Applied Energy 64: 15-30.

 

Sinton, J, Levine, MD, Qingyi, W. Energy Efficiency in China: Accomplishments and Challenges. Energy Policy, 26(11): 813-829, 1998.

 

Lew, D. J. Alternatives to Coal and Candles: Wind Power in China. Energy Policy 28, 271-286, 2000.

 

Fang Dong, Li Ping, Lew, D., Kammen, D., Wilson, R. “Strategic options for reducing CO2 in China:  Improving energy efficiency and using alternatives to fossil fuels, chapter 3 in: Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 119-165.

 

 

Paper outlines due, Friday March 9, 2001.

 

 

Week 6.  March 14,  2001.  Client activities – World Bank

           Guest lecture by Dr. Eric Martinot

 

Martinot, E.  Renewable energy investment by the World Bank. Energy Policy, 2001 in press.

          

Martinot, E. World Bank energy projects in China:  influences on environmental protection,  Energy Policy, 2001 in press.

 

 

 

Spring Break  (March 17 – 25, 2001)

 

 

Week 7.  March 28, 2001.  Discussion of integration of individual research into group research project and report.  Overall objectives.  Goals of presentation to World Bank staff.

 

 

Week 8.  Week of April 4, 2001.  Individual Consultations.

 

 

Draft research papers due, Friday April 6, 2000.

 

 

Week 9.  April 11, 2001.  Oral presentations start.  Discussion of final report.

 

 

Week 10.  April 18, 2001.  Oral presentations continue. 

 

 

Week 11.  April 25, 2001.  Presentation of final report.  Discussion of revisions.

 

 

Week 12.  May 2, 2001.  Discussion and approval of final report.

 

 

 

** Final revised papers are due by Friday May 4, 2000.  **

 

 

Presentation of results outlined in final report to World Bank staff during a one day trip to Washington D.C. to be arranged for the second week of May.

 

 

 


RESEARCH MATERIAL ON RESERVE AT WWS LIBRARY

 

Books:

 

A Planner’s Guide for Selecting Clean-Coal Technologies for Power Plants., Okarsson, Karin, Anders Berglund, Rolf Deling, Ulrika Snellman, Olle Stenbäck, and Jack J. Fritz, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank,  Washington D.C., 1997.

 

Applying Market-Based Instruments to Environmental Policies in China and OECD Countries, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris: OECD, 1997.

 

Clean Coal Technologies for Developing Countries. , Tavoulareas, E. Stratos, and Jean-Pierre Charpentier, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C.,1995.

 

Clear Water, Blue Skies: China’s Environment in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997.

 

Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Edited by J.T. Houghton, et al., Cambridge University Press, 1996.

 

Climate Change 1995: The Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change,Contribution of Working Group 3 to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Edited by Bruce, et al., Cambridge University Press, 1996.

 

Climate Change, 1995 : Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: scientific-technical analyses, Contribution of WGII to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Watson, R. et al., Cambridge University Press, 1996.

 

Energizing China, Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth, edited by McElroy, Nielsen, and Lydon, Harvard University Press, 1998.

 

Energy After Rio: Prospects and Challenges, Reddy, Amulya, Robert Williams and Thomas Johansson, United Nations Development Programme, 1997.

 

Energy Demand in Five Major Asian Developing Countries, Ishiguro, Masayasu, and Takamasa Akiyama, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C.,1995.

 

Mortgaging the Earth, Rich, Bruce,  Boston: Beacon Press, 1994.

 

Powerful Partnerships: The Federal Role in International Cooperation on Energy Innovation, A Report from the President’s Committee if Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, D.C., 1999.

 

Renewable Energy . Edited by Thomas B. Johansson, Henry Kelly, Amulya K.N. Reddy, and Robert H. Williams.  Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993.

 

The People’s Republic of China Energy Conservation Project.  Project Document. Washington, D.C.: Global Environment Division, Environment Department/The World Bank, 1998.

 

Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia: Guidebook.  Edited by

Jitendra Shah, Tanvi Nagpal, and Carter J. Brandon. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1997

 

 

 

Research Papers (loosely organized):

 

Climate:

 

“China’s Key Role in Climate Protection”, Bach, Wilfred and Stefan Fiebig.  Energy. Vol. 23  no. 4. (1998): pp. 253-270.

 

China: Issues and Options in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control. Johnson, Todd., Junfeng Li, Zhongxiao and Robert Taylor, eds. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 330. (1996).

 

China: Issues and Options in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control. National Environmental Protection Agency of China and others. Summary Report. (December 1994).

 

“Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges”. Brown, Marilyn A., Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey.   Annual Reviews Energy and the Environment. Vol. 23. (1998): pp. 287-385

 

“International Technology Transfer for Climate Change Mitigation and the Cases of Russia and China”. Martinot, Eric, Jonathan E. Stinton, and Brent M. Haddad. Annual Reviews Energy and the Environment. Vol. 22. (1998): pp.  357-401.

 

“Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries”. Sathaye, Jayant, and N.H. Ravindrantah. Annual Reviews of Energy and the Environment. Vol. 23. (1998): pp.  387-437.

 

 

Health Effects of Air Pollution:

 

 “The Health Benefits of Air Pollution Control in Delhi”. Cropper, Maureen, Nathalie Simon, Anna Alberini, Seema Arora, and P.K. Sharma.  American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol. 79. no 5. (1997): pp. 1625-1629.

 

“Toxicological Bases for the Setting of Health-Related Air Pollution Standards”. Lippman, M. and R. B. Schlesinger. Annual Review of Public Health. Vol. 21. (2000): pp. 309-333.

 

“Public Health Impact of Air Pollution and Implications for the Energy System”. Rabl, Ari and Joseph V. Spadoro. Annual Reviews of Energy and the Environment. Vol. 25. (2000): pp. 601-627.

 

 

Environmental Effects of Air Pollution:

 

 “Acidification in China: Assessment Based on Studies at Forested Sites from Chongqing to Guangzhou”. Dawel, Zhao, and Kong Guohui. Ambio. Vol. 28 no. 6. (1999): pp. 522-530.

 

“Sulfur Oxides: Pollution Abatement and Control”. World Bank Group. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. (July 1998): pp. 258-260.

 

 “Ground-Level Ozone”. World Bank Group. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. (July 1998): pp. 227-230.

 

“Integrated Analysis for Acid Rain in Asia: Policy Implications and Results of RAINS-ASIA Model”. Shah, Jitendra, Tanvi Magpal, Todd Johnson, Markus Amann, Gregory Carmichael, Wesley Foell,  Collin Green, Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Leen Hordijk, Jia Li, Chao Peng, Yifen Pu, Ramesh Ramankutty, and David Streets. Annual Reviews of Energy and the Environment. Vol. 25. (2000): pp. 339-3s75.

 

“Present and Future Emissions of Air Pollution in China: SO2,  NOx, and CO”.  Streets, D.G., and S.T. Waldhoff. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 34 (2000): pp. 363-374.

 

“A Modeling Study on Acid Rain and Recommended Emission Control Strategies in China”. Wang, T. J., L.S. Lin, Z.K. Li, and K.S. Lam. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 34 (2000): pp. 4467-4477.

 

“Energy Consumption and Acid Deposition in Northeast Asia”. Streets, David, Gregory Carmichael, Markus Amann, and Richard L. Arndt. Ambio. Vol. 28 no. 2. (1999): pp. 134-143.

 

 

Energy Demand/Supply:

 

“Energy Management and Environmental Awareness in China’s Enterprises”. Zhicheng, Chen and Robin Porter. Energy Policy. Vol. 28. (2000): pp. 49-63.

 

“The Outlook for Energy Demand to 2010”.  Birol, Faith.  International Journal of Global Energy Issues. Vol. 11 nos. 1-4. (1998): pp. 51-57.

 

 “Interconnection of Power Systems and Development of Power Market in China”. Bai, Xiaomin and Shuti Fu., IEEE-Panel Discussion. (2000). pp. 17-19.

 

“Energy Development and Environmental Constraints in China”. Gan, Lin. Energy Policy. Vol. 26 no 2. Pp. 119-128.

 

 “Development of China’s Energy Sector: Reform, Efficiency, And Environmental Impacts”. Johnson, Todd. M. Oxford Review of Economic Policy. Vol. 11 no.4. (1995): pp. 118-132.

 

 “Why Has the Energy-Output Ratio Fallen in China?”. Garbaccio, Richard F., Mun S. Ho, and Daie W. Jorgenson. The Energy Journal. Vol. 20 no 3. (1999): pp. 63-91.

 

 “Basic Needs and Much More with One Kilowatt Per Capita”. Goldemberg, José, Thomas B. Johansson, Amulya K.N. Reddy, and Robert H. Williams. Ambio. Vol. 14 no 4-5.(1985): pp. 190-200.

 

 

Markets/Finance:

 

Creating a Market for Renewables: Electricity Policy Options for Developing Countries. Shepherd, Dan. Climate Change Team, Environment Department, The World Bank. (1998).

 

“Financing of Private Power Development and Power Sector Reform in Emerging Nations”. Lock, Reinier. Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp. 955-965

 

“Renewable Energy Markets and the Global Environment Facility”. Martinot, Eric. Financial Times. Issue 12. (Feb. 2000) pp. 18-22.

 

International Industrial Collaboration for Accelerated Adoption of Environmentally Sound Energy Technologies in Developing Countries. Williams, Robert, Stephen Karekezi, Jyoti Parikh, and Chihiro Watanabe.  A STAP/GEF Report. (Sept. 16,1996).

 

  “A Macro-Assessment of Technology Options for CO2 Mitigation in China’s Energy System”. Wu, Zongxin, Jiankun He, Aling Zhang, Qing Xu, Shuyu Zhang and Jayant Sathaye. Energy Policy. Vol. 22 no. 11. (1994): pp.907-913.

 

 “Financing Energy Projects”. Bond, Gary and Laurence Carter. Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no 11. (1995): pp. 967-975.

 

“The View from the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC).” Himberg, Harvey. Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no 11. (1995): pp. 977-980.

 

“The competitive Environment for Oil and Gas Financing”. Humphries, Michael.  Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no 11. (1995): pp. 991-1000.

 

“Accounting for Energy Use in China, 1980-94”. Sun, J.W.  Energy. Vol. 23 no. 10. (1998): pp. 835-849.

 

 

Renewable Energy, General

 

The Outlook for Renewable Energy Technologies, Public Policy Issues, and Roles for the Global Environment Facility. Williams, Robert, Stephen Karekezi, Jyoti Parikh, and Chihiro Watanabe. A STAP/GEF Report. (Sept. 16,1996).

 

 “Beyond Combustion”. Steinbugler, Margaret and Robert H. Williams. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy. Vol. 13 no 4. (1998): pp. 102-107.

 

 

Wind Power:

 

“Windpower: A Turn of the Century Review”. McGowan, Jon G. and Stephen R. Connors.  Annual Reviews of Energy and the Environment. Vol. 25 (2000): pp. 147-197.

 

 “Concessions for Wind Power Plants—A New Approach to Sustainable Energy Development in China”. Brennand, Timothy. United Nations Development Programme, University of East Anglia. pp. 1-69.

 

 “High-Capacity Factor Wind Energy Systems”. Cavallo, Alfred. J. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. Vol. 117 no 143. (1995).

 

“Wind Energy Development in China – Realtiy and Market Forces”, Han, Yinghua.  Renewable Energy,  16 (1998)  pp. 965-969. 

 

“Large-Scale Baseload Wind Power in China”. Lew, Debra , Robert Williams, Xie Shaoxiong, and Zhang Shihui. Natural Resources Forum. Vol. 22 no 3. (1998): pp. 165-184.

 

“Oil and Gas Financing By the World Bank”. Razavi, Hossein. Energy Policy. Vol. 23

no. 11. (1995): pp. 1001-1007.

 

 

Biomass Energy:

 

“Biomass Plantation Energy Systems and Sustainable Development”. Larson, Eric and Robert Williams. In Energy as an Instrument for Socio-Economic Development, José Goldemberg and Thomas B. Johansson, eds. UNDP. (1995): pp. 91-106.

 

 “A Preliminary Assessment if Biomass Conversion to Fischer-Tropsch Cooking Fuels for Rural China”. Larson, Eric. 4th. Biomass Conference of the Americas, Oakland, California, Aug. 29-Sept. 2, 1999.

 

 “The Development and Prospective of Bioenergy Technology in China”. Lin, Dai. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 15 no. 2. (1998): pp. 181-186.

 

“Biofuel Use in Asia and Acidifying Emissions”. Streets, David and Stephanie Waldhoff. Energy. Vol. 23 no. 12. (1998): pp. 1029-1042.

 

 

Solar Power:

 

“Solar Thermal Power Technology: Present Status and Ideas for the Future”. Goswami, D. Yogi. Energy Sources. Vol. 20. (1998): pp. 137-145.

 

“The GEF Solar PV Portfolio: Emerging Experience and Lessons”. Martinot, Eric, Ramesh Ramankutty, and Frank Rittner. Monitoring and Evaluation Working Paper 2. (2000): pp. i-29.

 

“World Bank/GEF Solar Home System Projects: Experiences and Lessons Learned 1993-2000”. Martinot, Eric, A. Cabraal, and S. Mathur. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol. 5. (2002) pp. 39-57.

 

“Energy from the Sun”. Weinberg, Carl J. and Robert H. Williams. Scientific American. Vol. 263 no 3. (1990) pp. 146-155.

 

 

Hydropower:

 

“Priorities for hydropower development in China”, Pan, J, Zhang, J, International Journal on Hydropower and Dams, vol 3, no 1, (1996) pp. 43-46.

 

“Damming the Yangtze”, Ash, J., Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy,Vol 13, no.3 (1998) p.78.

 

 

Geothermal Energy:

 

 “Present Situation and Future of Utilization of Geothermal Energy in China”. Huang, Zhou and Wu Fang Zhi. Energy Sources. Vol. 20. (1998): pp. 705-708.

 

 

Electricity:

 

“Expanding Electricity Access to Remote Areas: Off-Grid Rural Electrification in Developing Countries”. Reiche, Kilian, Alvaro Covarrubias, and Eric Martinot. WorldPower. (2000): pp. 52-60.

 

Electricity Law of the People’s Republic of China-Decree of President of the People’s Republic of China No. 60. Zemin, Jiang. (1995): pp. 1-13.

 

 “Electricity Market Develops in China”. Zeng, Q.Y., and Y.H. Song. Transmission & Distribution World.  (May 1998): pp. 36-41.

 

“Site Visits Illustrate Advanced Grid Design”. Sweet, William, and Elizabeth Bretz. IEEE Spectrum,  36 no. 12. (1999): pp. 64-68.

 

 

 Transportation:

 

 “Exploring the Path to Near-Zero Emissions for Transportation”.  Ogden, Joan, Robert Williams, and Eric Larson. Review Draft prepared for The W. Alton Jones Foundation. (2000).

 

Flexing the Link Between Transport and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Shipper, Lee, Celine Marie-Lilliu, and Roger Gorham. Paris. International Energy Agency. (2000).

 

 “Fuel Cells: Reaching the Era of Clean and Efficient Power Generation in the Twenty-First Century”. Srinivasan, Supramaniam, Renaut Mosdale, Philippe Stevens, and Christopher Yang. Annual Reviews of Energy and the Environment. Vol. 24.(1999): pp. 281-328.

 

 

Regulation:

 

 “Regulatory Approaches to Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy: Case Studies from Six Developing Countries”. Martinot, Eric and Kilian Reiche. World Development. (2000): pp. 1-17.

 

 “Renewable Energy Policy Options for Mountain Communities:  Experiences from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan, Rijal, Kamal.  Renewable Energy 16 (1999) 1138-1142.

 

 

Coal and Applications:

 

“Addressing the Coal Conundrum”.  Sweet, William, and Elizabeth Bretz. IEEE Spectrum, 36 no. 12. (1999): pp.40-41.

 

“A Technological Strategy for Making Fossil Fuels Environment-and-Climate Friendly”. Williams, Robert H. World Energy Council Journal. (July, 1998): pp. 59-67.

 

“Hydrogen Production from Coal and Coal Bed Methane, Using Byproduct CO2 for Enhanced Methane Recovery and Sequestering the CO2 in the Coal Bed”. Williams, R.H.  Reprinted from: Greenhouse Gas Technologies, B. Eliasson, P. Riemer, and A. Wokaun, eds., Pergamon, Amsterdam, (1999): pp. 799-805.

 

 “Toward Zero Emissions for Coal: Roles for Inorganic Membranes”. Williams, Robert H. International Symposium Proceedings, EniTechnologie, Rome. (March 11-13, 1999): pp. 212-242.

 

 

Case Studies:

 

“Increased Energy Use in Jiangsu Province of China with Protection of the Environment”. Wang, Xiaohua, Zhenming Feng, and Qishuo Ding.  Energy. Vol. 24. (1999): pp. 413-417.

 

 “On Household Energy Consumption for Rural Development: A Study on Yangzhong County of China”. Wang, Xiaohua, Zhenming Feng, Xingfeng Gao, and Kui Jiang. Energy. Vol. 24. (1999): pp. 493-500.

 

 “Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Consumption Activities by the Iron and Steel Industry in East China”. Xu, Xinhua and Wang Dahui. Energy Sources. Vol. 21. (1999): pp. 541-546.

 

 

 

Packet of information explaining the impacts of particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ozone. 

 

“Airborne Particulate Matter”. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.201-207.

 

“Airborne Particulate Matter: Pollution Prevention and Control”. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook.. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.235-239.

 

“Nitrogen Oxides”. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.223-226.

 

“Nitrogen Oxides: Pollution Prevention and Control”. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook.. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.245-249.

 

“Sulfur Oxides: Pollution Prevention and Control”. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.258-260.

 

“Ground-Level Ozone”. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group, July 1998 , pp.227-230.

 

 

 

Packet of information on financing energy projects.

 

 “Financing Energy Projects”. Bond, Gary, and Laurence Carter. Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp.967-975.

 

 “The View from the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)”. Himberg, Harvey.  Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp.977-980.

 

 “The Competitive Environment for Oil and Gas Financing”. Humphries, Michael E. Energy Policy. Vol. 23 no. 11. (1995): pp.991-1000.

 

 

 “Costing Power Generation”. Zutshi, Priyamvada, and Preety M. Bhnadari. Energy Policy. January 1994, pp.75-80.