Thanks to Nick Weinreb '95 for his efforts in helping OA accommodate the needs of Jewish students.
The Sabbath (Shabbat or "shah-baht" in Hebrew) is one of the central celebrations of the Jewish religion. The celebration of Shabbat is an opportunity to learn about and share in someone else's religion and culture. The basic principle is a day of rest. If a student indicates that s/he observes Sabbath, you should inquire as to their form of observance. Traditional observance varies greatly. Some of the issues of observing the Sabbath are covered below. (See Kosher Menu Planning below). Some students will observe all of these, some a few.
Shabbat lasts from one hour before sundown on Friday to the time on Saturday night when three stars are visible. In order to maintain the spirit of the festivity, Jews do no work on Shabbat. Also a Jew is prohibited from asking others to do work for him or her. Work, along with what people usually think of, includes carrying things in an open space, tying knots, lighting a fire, or turning on a flashlight. It is possible for others to volunteer to do things for someone observing Shabbat, but they must not be asked to do the work. If relevant on your trip, you will need to have the trip scheduled so that you get into camp at least two hours before sunset on Friday and stay at that location until Sunday morning. You may want to have some type of local activity on Saturday for people who don't celebrate Shabbat such as a day hike, trail maintenance project, or rock climbing trip. Short hikes on Saturday are fine for some people who want to keep Shabbat as long as they don't have to carry anything. In this case, leaders would have to think in advance that they would need to carry water and food for the observant person and volunteer to do that first thing in the morning.
Because Jews cannot carry things in a public domain, it is necessary that the group stay in an enclosed are such as a tent, lean-to or cabin. You should set up camp early on Friday so you won't be rushed. Make sure that all tarps, bear bag lines, etc., are up. For the bathroom, designate a spot for Shabbat and leave some toilet paper in a Ziplock bag. For light, you can light a three-hour candle and let it burn out. Also, you can leave a flashlight on all night, but note that there are some strictly observant Jews that considered using flashlights work-related and therefore prefer not to handle them during Shabbat. Bringing a 12-hour Cyalume light stick and breaking it open before sunset may be an acceptable alternative.
It is important to take into consideration the different eating habits of all the group members when planing the menu. There may be people with food allergies, those who are vegetarians, and/or those who keep kosher. It is also important to plan a variety of food, especially on longer trips. Asking trip members and checking forms for dietary needs before the group shops will help make everyone on the trip feel included, just as neglecting to do so these things can make a participant feel marginalized and forgotten. Finally, a tip for cooking with dietary needs in mind: cook (when necessary) milk, meat or whatever part of a meal which cannot be eaten by everyone separately. Put it aside in a separate dish for people to add to their own individual plates.
Not all vegetarians exclude the same foods. It is important to discuss with someone who says they are vegetarian what foods they can and cannot eat before planning your menu. The most common forms of Vegetarians are:
See the Nutritional N in Chapter 3 for guidelines on food combinations that offer the essential amino acids. One alternative for vegans is bringing vacuum packed containers of tofu (soybean curd). When you shop for vegetarians, you need to look closely at the label. Animal products are often "hidden" in different foods. Gelatin, for instance, is almost always made with animal products unless it is specifically labeled to the contrary. Refried beans are often made with lard, an animal fat. For Vegans, milk as well, hides in foods as "whey," in many baked goods and some cereals. It is also important to remember that the daily demands of wilderness travel require high caloric intake which may be difficult for some vegetarians since fats are often obtained in meat and dairy products. Nuts and peanuts contain oils which are good sources of both fats and calories.
Find out if people on your trip have food allergies or dietary restrictions. This is a critical safety consideration that you need to know about before you go out on the trail. Someone who is extremely allergic to a food can have an anaphylactic reaction (see Chapter 9 - First Aid & Emergency Care: Anaphylaxis). In many cases, you can find substitute foods for the offending item. I once had someone on a winter camping trip who was allergic to wheat. At first I was stymied about what to do, no pasta, no bread, crackers, etc. We ended up buying rice cakes and corn-based past from a health food store. You may need to do some real detective work for people who have serious allergies. For example, even regular M&M candies (not peanut) have small amounts of peanuts in them and should not be eaten by someone with a severe peanut allergy (unused regular and peanut M&M's are reprocessed together into new candy).
If you have someone on your trip who indicates that they keep kosher, you should talk with the person and learn about how they choose to observe this practice. In some cases keeping kosher involves avoiding some foods, for some it will mean using only Kosher versions of foods, and in other cases it may mean having cookware (pots, utensils, etc.) that have been kept kosher.
Be aware that there are individuals with eating disorders, either Anorexia or Bulimia. If someone has such a problem, they most likely will bring it with them on the trip. Look for people who either avoid eating (even though they are getting lots of exercise), who seem to binge eat at some points and avoid eating at others, or who seem overly preoccupied with food, calories, or their weight. There can be safety risks if someone is not eating properly on a trip. The Accident Potential can increase significantly (see Chapter 8 - Safety & Emergency Procedures: Dynamics of Accidents page 00). It can also be a problem since people with eating disorders may see a backpacking trip as an opportunity to "lose weight" through both exercise and abstention. If you suspect someone has an eating disorder, you should talk to them confidentially about it and let them know of the serious safety considerations not only for them but for the rest of the group. If you feel the person is not taking proper care of themselves and is placing either themselves or the group at risk, consider evacuating them.
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