Introduction to Aircraft Flight Dynamics

A Virtual Reference Book

Robert F. Stengel

Princeton University
Princeton, NJ

May 21, 2013

Introduction to Aircraft Flight Dynamics is an assemblage of bookmarks for web pages that contain educational material. The Table of Contents summarizes the Bookmarks Menu and provides links to each chapter. The Bookmarks Menu is organized to follow a logical sequence for associated lectures. Specific topics can be found using the "Search" feature of your web browser.

The majority of links in the Bookmarks Menu refer to sites contained at Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, which is published freely with a General Disclaimer. [As noted on the Wikipedia Main Page, Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.] All web pages can be modified or removed without notice, and Wikipedia is subject to unedited modifications by anyone, including experts and non-experts alike. Readers are cautioned that Wikipedia articles do not have the archival credibility of edited books and journals; however, no material that is known to be incorrect is referenced in the virtual reference bbook.

Contents of Introduction to Aircraft Flight Dynamics are subject to change. The current edition is indicated by the date shown above, and no backup version is maintained. The date of last revision is given below.

The Introduction to Aircraft Flight Dynamics html file may be downloaded freely for non-commercial, educational use only, with acknowledgment of the source in any publications that may follow. It conforms to the criteria outlined by Princeton University's Office of General Counsel's Copyright Basics. Any material that is deemed to infringe upon another's copyright will be promptly removed following verifiable notification by the copyright holder.


Table of Contents

  1. Introduction, Mathematical Preliminaries
  2. Point-Mass Dynamics and Aerodynamic Forces
  3. Aviation History
  4. Configuration Aerodynamics - 1
  5. Configuration Aerodynamics - 2
  6. Cruising Flight Performance
  7. Gliding, Climbing, and Turning Performance
  8. Aircraft Equations of Motion - 1
  9. Aircraft Equations of Motion - 2
  10. Linearized Equations and Modes of Motion
  11. Longitudinal Dynamics
  12. Lateral-Directional Dynamics
  13. Analysis of Time Response
  14. Root-Locus Analysis of Parameter Variations
  15. Transfer Functions and Frequency Response
  16. Aircraft Control Devices and Systems
  17. Flight Testing for Stability and Control
  18. Advanced Longitudinal Dynamics
  19. Advanced Lateral-Directional Dynamics
  20. Flying Qualities Criteria
  21. Maneuvering, Aeroelasticity, and Control Interactions
  22. Problems of High Speed and Altitude
  23. Atmospheric Hazards to Flight
  24. Configuration and Power Effects on Flight Stability

Copyright 2013 by Robert F. Stengel. All rights reserved, except to those items previously copyrighted or in the public domain.
Last updated May 21, 2013.
e-mail: stengel at princeton.edu.

Bookmarks Menu

MAE 331 Virtual Reference Book

1. Introduction, Math Preliminaries

Aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
List of aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fuselage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Empennage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Miniature UAV - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
List of aircraft by date and usage category - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2. Point-Mass Dynamics and Forces

Newton's laws of motion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aerodynamic force - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lift (force) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lift coefficient - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Drag (physics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aircraft engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Airspeed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stagnation pressure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dynamic pressure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Static pressure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Density - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
U.S. Standard Atmosphere - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
US 1976 Standard Atmosphere
Standard Atmosphere Calculator
Atmosphere of Earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Standard Dry Air - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Water vapor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Humidity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Atmospheric models - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mean free path - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Afterburner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reciprocating engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turbojet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Scramjet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turbofan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turboprop - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Propfan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pulse detonation engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ramjet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turbocharger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Radial engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3. Aviation History

Aviation history - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NASA History Home Page
History of Flight
History of unmanned aerial vehicles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

4, 5. Configuration Aerodynamics

Lifting-line theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Airfoil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aspect ratio (wing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wetted aspect ratio (wing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Planform - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reynolds number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parasitic drag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flap (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Leading edge slats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chord (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wingspan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mach number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Swept wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flow separation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lift–induced drag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oswald efficiency number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lift-to-drag ratio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Critical Mach number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Supercritical airfoil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Area rule - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wing configuration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shock wave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oblique shock - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Couple (mechanics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Moment (physics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Static margin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pitch-up - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stall (flight) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NASA SP-367 Aero of Flight
Sideslip angle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aerodynamic center - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Micro air vehicle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fineness ratio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Counter-rotating propellers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
FoilSim III Student Version 1.3b beta
NACA airfoil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NACA cowling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NACA duct - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

6, 7. Flight Performance

Flight envelope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Propeller - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Propeller (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turbojet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Scramjet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pulse detonation engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ramjet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thrust-to-weight ratio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wing loading - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Range (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cockpit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Glass cockpit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flight instruments - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gliding (flight) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rate of climb - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Zoom climb - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Energy-Maneuverability theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aircraft specific energy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Herbst maneuver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Banked turn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Supermaneuverability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Maneuvering speed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brake specific fuel consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thrust specific fuel consumption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coffin corner (aviation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

8, 9. Equations of Motion

Rigid body dynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flight dynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cartesian coordinate system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rotation representation (mathematics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Euler angles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Quaternion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Momentum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Angular velocity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Moment of inertia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Angular momentum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rotation around a fixed axis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Linear motion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mathematical Model and Six-Degree-of-Freedom Simulation of a Business Jet Aircraft

10. Linearization and Modes of Motion

Runge - Kutta methods - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Linear approximation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Linearization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Taylor series - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jacobian determinant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Power series - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Finite difference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fourier transform - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Laplace transform - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Characteristic polynomial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aircraft dynamic modes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stability derivatives - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

11. Longitudinal Dynamics

Phugoid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Short Period
Pitching moment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Longitudinal static stability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

12. Lateral-Directional Dynamics

Aircraft dynamic modes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dutch roll - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Directional stability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

13. Analysis of Time Response

Transient response - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Step response - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Impulse response - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fundamental frequency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oscillation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hertz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wavelength - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Damping - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Damping ratio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rise time - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Overshoot (signal) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Settling time - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amplitude - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phase (waves) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heaviside step function - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Convolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

14. Root Locus Analysis of Parameter Variations

Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Real number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Imaginary number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Complex number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Complex plane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
S plane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Characteristic polynomial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Root locus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

15. Transfer Functions and Frequency Response

Bode plot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Characteristic polynomial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bandwidth (signal processing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Low-pass filter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
High-pass filter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Band-pass filter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Minimum phase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

16. Control Devices and Systems

Flight control surfaces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rudder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aileron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wing warping - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stabilizer (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Elevator (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stabilator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Canard (aeronautics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stick pusher - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spoiler (aeronautics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Trim tab - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Elevon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Negative feedback - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Positive feedback - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Controllability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Controllability Gramian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aircraft flight control system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aircraft engine controls - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
FADEC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lead-lag compensator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
PI controller - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
PID Tutorial
Servomechanism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

17. Flight Testing for Stability and Control

Flight test - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cooper-Harper rating scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ryan Navion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dryden Flight Research Center - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edwards Air Force Base - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Naval Air Station Patuxent River - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Princeton University Flight Research Laboratory

18. Advanced Problems of Longitudinal Dynamics

Phase margin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nyquist plot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nyquist stability criterion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nichols plot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pilot-induced oscillation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

19. Advanced Problems of Lateral-Directional Dynamics

Adverse yaw - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dihedral (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Singular perturbation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

20. Flying Qualities Criteria

Pilot-induced oscillation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Handling qualities - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

21. Maneuvering and Aeroelasticity

Aerobatic maneuver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Competition aerobatics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Basic fighter maneuvers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dogfight - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Inertia coupling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spin (flight) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Immelmann turn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chandelle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Scissors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Split S - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cuban Eight - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thrust vectoring - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ground effect in aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aeroelasticity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Slosh dynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Crosswind landing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

22. Problems of High Speed and Altitude

Mach tuck - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aircraft upset - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Douglas Skyrocket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stall (flight) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Swept wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lockheed U-2 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Myasishchev M-55 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NASA Pathfinder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

23. Atmospheric Hazards to Flight

List of aircraft upset factors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Microburst - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wind Rotor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gravity wave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal convective rolls - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wake turbulence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Batchelor vortex - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Downwash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Clear-air turbulence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Feedback linearization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Optimal control - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bayesian network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Trajectory optimization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Atmospheric icing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

24. Configuration and Power Effects on Flight Stability

Aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fixed-wing aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amphibious aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Floatplane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flying wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Trapezoidal wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Delta wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Forward-swept wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Variable-sweep wing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stall strips - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vortex generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wing twist - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Washout (aviation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Angle of incidence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Center of mass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
V-tail - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wing tip - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wingtip device - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Leading edge extension - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tailplane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vertical stabilizer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
T-tail - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Computational fluid dynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wind tunnel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NASA Technical Reports Server
USAF Stability and Control DATCOM - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
USAF Digital Datcom
Critical engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turbofan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turboprop - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Propfan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia