A mysterious vial of mud taken from a New Jersey swamp may end up offering a solution to several obstinate forms of water pollution.
Five Princeton University graduate students in computer science and one in environmental engineering have been awarded prestigious fellowships from the Siebel Scholars Foundation, a program that promotes leadership, academic achievement and the collaborative search for solutions to the world's most critical issues.
Researchers at Princeton and MIT have used computer models to show that severe tropical cyclones could hit a number of coastal cities worldwide that are widely seen as unthreatened by such powerful storms.
In July 2014, James Famiglietti took a leave of absence from his position as professor of earth system science and of civil and environmental engineering at University of California-Irvine, and moved to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena to assume the position of senior water scientist. Famiglietti is a hydrologist who uses NASA satellites and develops computer models to track how freshwater availability is changing around the world.
It was announced by Cantel Medical Corp., that Dr. Laura Forese, president of New York-Presbyterian Healthcare System, has been appointed to its board of directors.
Eric F. Wood, a professor of civil and environmental engineering, has been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, one of the highest career honors for engineers.
Morgan Stanley Investment Management has announced that Greg Finck is a managing director in the New York office. He will serve as portfolio manager and head of the securitized team for the firm’s global fixed-income platform.
Princeton University researchers have uncovered a previously unknown, and possibly substantial, source of the greenhouse gas methane to the Earth's atmosphere.
Leslie E. Robertson Associates (LERA), a consulting structural engineering firm, announced that Wing-Pin (Winnie) Kwan has been promoted to partner and named the new director of LERA Shanghai.
David L. Smith, director of science and strategic initiatives at the Da Vinci Science Center in Allentown, Pennsylvania, received the 2014 National Science Teachers Association Distinguished Informal Science Educator Award.
Increasing the reliability of New Jersey's emerging solar power network and improving the durability of an environmentally-friendly type of concrete are among the research projects awarded funding this year by the Princeton E-ffiliates Partnership.
California Governor Edmund G. Brown has appointed James Famiglietti to the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board. The Board seeks to protect the quality of the water in the region by “formulating and adopting water quality plans for specific ground or surface water bodies, and by prescribing and enforcing requirements on domestic and industrial water discharges.”
It was announced that John Drzik is president of global risk and specialties at Marsh, Inc., effective January 1. In his new role, Drzik will oversee a number of Marsh & McLennan Companies. He also was named chair of the newly formed Marsh and McLennan Companies Global Risk Center.
Time Warner Inc. has promoted Karen Magee to executive vice president, chief human resources officer. This is effective as of January 2014.
A few months before Hurricane Sandy slammed into the Northeast, Ning Lin Ph.D. ’10 and her colleagues published an article in the journal Nature Climate Change warning that devastating storms could become more frequent as the climate changes. The paper, with an emphasis on the hazards of storm surge and a focus on lower Manhattan, seemed prescient. After the storm, city officials asked Lin, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, to help assist New York City pr
You don’t need a scientist to tell you that Manhattan gets brutally hot in the summer. But it helps to have one if you intend to do something about it. For the past year, Elie Bou-Zeid and his co-researchers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and at Columbia University have been working with New York City officials to find ways to cool the city in the heat of the summer. The city has multiple interests in urban heating. For one, air conditioning use sends electricity demand s
TransCentra, a Georgia-based provider of billing and payment software plus services for consumer and business-to-business markets, has named Michael McCloskey its new chief financial officer.
Harvey Bernstein, vice president of McGraw Hill Construction, Industry & Alliances, has joined the corporate advisory board of the World Green Building Council.
Princeton researchers representing a wide range of disciplines are helping to propose possible methods to minimize flood risks for shore communities affected by Hurricane Sandy.
The American Society of Civil Engineers named Erik Vanmarcke a distinguished member of the society, one of the highest accolades among civil engineers.
Jeffrey Callow, P.E., LEED AP, was promoted to vice president of the New York office of Thornton Tomasetti, an international engineering firm founded in 1956.
Axis Capital Holdings Limited has appointed Sandeep Ramachandran a senior vice president and co-head of the weather and commodity markets initiative at Axis Re. He will share responsibility to establish and manage its global weather and energy business.
The bi-lingual YingHua International School in Princeton, New Jersey, announced that Kristin Epstein has been appointed executive director.
Steve Papa, founder and former CEO of Endeca Technologies, has joined the strategic advisory board for Kyruus, a company offering hospitals and healthcare systems a data-driven approach to building, operating and optimizing their physician networks.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) named Jameelah Muhammad one of its 10 under 30 in its 2013 New Faces of Civil Engineering program.
Fred Smagorinsky is the chief executive officer of Artic Glacier Holdings, Inc., a producer and distributor of packaged ice to retail accounts in Canada and the United States.
Rajiv De Silva was named president and chief executive officer of Endo Health Solutions Inc., a company developing integrated end-to-end solutions in specialized therapeutic areas, including pain management and urology.
John Ochsendorf organized Palaces for The People: Guastavino and America’s Great Public Spaces, a National Building Museum exhibition on view in Washington, D.C., to January 20, 2014. The exhibition includes large-scale photos of architectural projects, original drawings and patents, scale models, construction demonstrations and more to illustrate the vaulted tiled ceilings built between 1881 and 1962 by the Guastavino father and son team in many landmark buildings throughout the States.
The Innovation Forum brings together teams of faculty members, postdocs and graduate students to pitch ideas for commercializing early-stage research to a panel of judges.
Climate change is likely to push nations to adjust their trading patterns to make more efficient use of water, according to new research from a team that integrated separate models of hydrology, climate change and trade policy.
The Lean Launchpad, a system for starting successful businesses, is driving faculty and student ventures and will be the basis of the Keller Center's upcoming eLab summer accelerator program.
Turning municipal solid waste into fuel and reducing greenhouse gases emitted in making concrete are the first two innovations funded by the recently established Princeton Energy and Environment Corporate Affiliates Program.
Linda Abriola, Dean of the School of Engineering at Tufts University, was named the 2013 Engineering Leader of the Year by Drexel’s College of Engineering, her undergraduate alma mater. The award was given in recognition of her leadership efforts in the field of environmental engineering along with its impact on society and her contributions to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). Abriola, the only female in Drexels’ 1976 graduating class of civil and environmental engineers and the fi
James R. Chambers began his new appointment as president and chief operating officer of Weight Watchers International in early January. His responsibilities include overseeing global business operations and WeightWatchers.com businesses.
A collaboration between Princeton engineers and the Princeton Plasma Physics lab is creating a more accurate understanding of how building materials such as black or white roofs affect energy use.
Allan Zarembski recently joined the University of Delaware as a research professor and director of the Railroad Engineering and Safety Program in the Department of Civil Engineering.
Minerva Networks, a software platform for the management and delivery of television services, has named Charles Yort vice president of marketing and strategic alliances. He will be based at Minerva’s headquarters in Alviso, California.
Christine Theodoropoulos was named dean of the College of Architecture and Environmental Design at California Polytechnic State University.
Philippe McAuliffe has joined the Advisory Group at Perella Weinberg Partners. As a partner in the New York office, he will provide strategic and financial advice to clients in the healthcare sector.
Pacific Crest Securities appointed Rodd Langenhagen as a managing director with the firm’s software investment banking team in its Boston office. Langenhagen joins the company at a time when its key objective is to expand its business relationships with high-growth segments of technology.
Sara Roberts was promoted to principal at KPFF Consulting Engineers. She has been a structural engineer with the company since graduating from Princeton University in 1995 with a BSE in civil engineering. Roberts was recognized for her skills in the management of multi-discipline teams constructing parking, transit and port facilities.
Stephen Silliman was named dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Gonzaga University in Spokane, Washington.
The IEEE awarded its 2012 Simon Ramo Medal to William “Red” Whittaker for his work in robotics. He was recognized “for pioneering contributions to mobile autonomous robotics, field applications of robots, and systems engineering.” Whittaker is the Fredkin Professor of Robotics at Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Institute and director of its Field Robotics Center and founder of the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.
The World Meteorological Organization’s Norbert Gerbier-MUMM International Award for 2013 will be presented to Yi Ming *03 and two other researchers from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at Princeton’s Forrestal Campus for their paper linking changes in monsoon rainfall to human activities.
A team of five Princeton engineering graduate students is leading a yearlong field research project using new laser sensors to measure pollutants with unprecedented sensitivity.
In research initiated by an undergraduate, Princeton engineers discovered that elephants' hair is not merely a decorative feature for pulchritudinous pachyderms; it also plays an important role in how the giant beasts regulate their body temperatures.
Professor James Smith writes how a trip to Nevada's Lake Mead in 2008 provided him a stark reminder of dramatically changing drought patterns and the importance of a broad-based effort to understand and manage water resources.
Tropical storms in the Atlantic are likely to increase as the Earth’s climate warms in the first half of this century, but not for the reason that many people think.
A decade ago, a shockwave raced through the world’s agricultural markets. China opened its borders to foreign-grown soy. Ranchers in Argentina plowed under their pastureland and Brazilian farmers opened new acreage for planting. Almost overnight, the economies of those countries changed. Why did this happen? And why does it make sense to grow food and ship it around the world rather than raise crops close to home? A Princeton-led research team has found that one of the primary
A massive expansion of hydropower planned for the Mekong River Basin in Southeast Asia could have a catastrophic impact on the river’s fishery and millions of people who depend on it, according to a new study by researchers including scientists from Princeton University. The researchers analyzed a number of scenarios for dam construction along the river and its tributaries. In an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), they found that, in the most extreme
Mark Zondlo and his research team frequently find themselves 45,000 feet above the Earth looking for water vapor in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. From a seat in a National Science Foundation (NSF) research jet, the engineers can search a slice of the sky for pollutants and gases that play a role in climate change. Zondlo, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, said that water plays a greater role in climate change than many people imagine. “If we want to un
Drought is often the precursor to disaster, but getting leads on its stealthy approach through remote or war-torn areas can be so difficult that relief agencies sometimes have little time to react before a bad situation becomes a calamity. The problem is that there is often no easy way to get data about water supplies in these areas — water monitoring stations don’t exist, or they don’t work, or their locations are simply too dangerous. Groups such as AGRHYMET, an intergover
In the course of studying water and its impact on communities, Peter Jaffe and his students have waded through the marshes of New Jersey’s Meadowlands and worked with villagers in India to remove toxins from their drinking water. Their travels represent the wide range of interests that Jaffe, a professor of civil and environmental engineering, has pursued in water-related research. In India, fluoride contamination in well water is common in parts of the country. In small amounts, fluor
If recent Princeton graduate Ida Posner’s senior thesis project works the way she hopes, scientists could answer critical questions about how much water plants use without expensive, bulky laboratory equipment.
The American Society of Civil Engineers has awarded its 2012 Alfred M. Freudenthal Medal to Erik Vanmarcke, professor of civil and environmental engineering.
Greentech Media named Kef Kasdin, CEO of Proterro Bio Fuels, as one of the top ten women in biofuels, as part of the magazine's efforts to highlight accomplishments by women in the area of clean technology, a traditionally male-dominated field.
South Jersey Industries (SJI), an energy services holding company, appointed Sarah Morrison Barpoulis to its board of directors effective April 20. The appointment includes election to the board of South Jersey Energy, the parent company for some SJI businesses. Barpoulis will also serve on SJI’s Audit and Governance Committees.
A flair for creating innovative courses and a dedication to mentoring students brought recognition to three Princeton Engineering faculty members at the close of 2011-2012 academic year.
Converting a standard shipping container into a sustainable source of energy for remote or disaster-torn regions, a team of Princeton University students took top honors in an 18-month national competition that culminated April 21 and 22 on the Washington, D.C., Mall.
After impressing a panel of judges with a three-minute pitch about paper-thin sensors that could revolutionize the safety of large structures, Princeton engineer Branko Glisic won the top prize at this year’s Innovation Forum, a competition that showcases University research with potential to succeed in the marketplace.
Christie’s announced that Kenneth Citron joined the auction house as chief information officer and international managing director for e-commerce. In this capacity, Citron will be responsible for integrating technology platforms across its world-wide business units. In addition, he will direct the ongoing development of the company’s e-commerce channel.
Joel Rood was appointed CEO of CalStar Products, a company that develops and manufactures masonry products that are produced with low energy requirements and low carbon dioxide emissions. The company chairman cited Rood’s “record of managing growth and innovation” as a strong and timely fit. With 15 years of experience in the construction products industry, Rood will guide CalStar as it expands into additional categories of sustainable building products and relocates its headquarters and R
Paul Hsieh, a research hydrologist with a specialty in underground water reserves, was named 2011 Federal Employee of the Year by the Partnership for Public Service. At an event in Washington, DC, Sept. 15, he was presented with a medal that “recognizes a Federal employee whose professional contributions exemplify the highest attributes of public service.”
Two Princeton engineering groups hope to use technologies based on inexpensive, easily available materials to give villagers in developing countries access to safe drinking water and help create local jobs.
Margaret Fels, a long-time researcher and teacher at Princeton University and an early leader in defining effective ways to evaluate energy efficiency in buildings and manufacturing, died Nov. 12. She was 70.
Students in the freshman seminar "Global Environmental Change: Science, Technology and Policy" addresses the issue of climate and sustainability through the lens of many disciplines.
Seeking to provide "tinkerers" with freedom to explore hunches and passions, businesswoman and philanthropist Lynn Shostack has given $10 million to permanently endow the Project X innovation fund in Princeton University's School of Engineering and Applied Science.
ACADEMICS “My two favorite classes have been CEE 307 Field Ecohydrology (which is taught in Kenya, where I spent the spring semester of my junior year) and CEE 305 Environ-mental Fluid Mechanics. My independent work is on turbulence in a sparse plant canopy. I conducted field research in Kenya to begin this project. The summer before my junior year I worked in Botswana with Professor Kelly Caylor’s group (with funding from the University’s Grand Challenges initiative). For
INDEPENDENT RESEARCH “I worked with the International Water Management Institute in India after my sophomore year, and this experience piqued my interest in water issues. Junior year, I went to Togo to assess ways to provide safe drinking water to a village of 3,000 people who had neither safe drinking water nor electricity. My senior thesis is on advanced chemical oxidation techniques for treating industrial wastewater.” WHY “I joined the department because I am excit
A comprehensive assessment of doctoral programs in the United States ranked departments at Princeton Engineering as among the very best in the nation. The National Research Council assessment gave median scores in the top 10 to all departments within the School of Engineering and Applied Science that have a comparable peer group of departments.
Denise Mauzerall combines science and policy in analyzing the effects of air pollution on climate change, human health and agricultural production. She has emerged as a leader in using atmospheric models to track the flow of pollution, helping to identify where reductions of harmful emissions would have the largest benefit.
Shair to serve on board of university he attended before coming to Princeton to study engineering.
For his senior thesis project, Kenneth Liew combined concepts from architecture, sociology and engineering to assess whether a new campus bridge succeeds both as a work of art and as a functional structure.
Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, an environmental engineer and pioneer in the field of ecohydrology, has been elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences, one of the highest honors in all areas of science.
AUDIO PODCAST (Right-click to save link.) Ignacio Rodriguez Iturbe, James S. MacDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, discusses "Water: Keystone for Sustainable Development." Topics in this lecture series on engineering the future include cryptography, sustainable energy, transportation systems, quantitative finance, greenhouse gases, and the future of the internet. The series was developed by the Princeton Adult School in conjunction
Two influential faculty members of the School of Engineering and Applied Science were transferred to emeritus status in recent action by the Board of Trustees.
Eric Wood, a Princeton professor of civil and environmental engineering, has been awarded the 2010 Jule G. Charney Award from the American Meteorological Society.
Princeton engineers are designing an underground experimental facility in a defunct South Dakota gold mine to test what would happen if carbon dioxide stored underground were to leak toward the surface.
Amy Lenhouts Tait '80 S79 P12 has joined the board of directors of IEC Electronics Corporation, a contract electronics manufacturer in Newark, New York.
Laurence Rosenblatt has joined M. A. Gales & Co., Inc. as its president and chief operating officer. He comes to this executive position after retiring from ExxonMobil Corporation, where he had worked for more than 29 years.
Theodore Zoli, a 1988 alumnus and a visiting lecturer in Princeton's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering since 2003, has been selected as a 2009 MacArthur Fellow. Zoli is a structural engineer who has developed novel ways of protecting transportation infrastructure in the event of natural and man-made disasters.
Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, a Princeton professor of civil and environmental engineering, will receive the 2009 William Bowie Medal, the highest honor awarded by the American Geophysical Union.
The school of engineering honored three junior faculty members with the E. Lawrence Keyes, Jr. / Emerson Electric Co. Faculty Advancement Award on May 26. The award recognizes young faculty members who have established vibrant teaching and research programs in their first years.
Young faculty members who are pioneering new areas of communications networks, environmental sensing and other fields have received numerous awards for outstanding contributions early in their careers. Mung Chiang, associate professor of electrical engineering, received a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers from the White House. He was one of only sixty-seven scientists who received the prestigious awards at a ceremony held at the White House last December. Chiang was
Kelly Caylor, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, has been awarded a Faculty Early Career Development award from the National Science Foundation to study water in Africa.
Joseph Voacturo, a senior technical support staff member in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Patricia Weiss, finance manager in the Department of Chemical Engineering, were honored as recipients of the President's Achievement Award on March 26.
Yi Ming, a researcher at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, has received the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, the nation's highest honor for researchers beginning their independent scientific careers.
For Trenton Franz, the one drawback to being a football star at the University of Wyoming -- he helped lead his team to its first bowl victory in 38 years -- was missing out on the chance to study abroad. His graduate work at Princeton has more than filled the gap.
Princeton civil and environmental engineering graduate student Luke MacDonald is designing a sustainable strategy to defluoridate the groundwater drinking supply in rural areas in the state of Jharkland, India.
Princeton researchers traveled to China to study changes in Beijing’s air quality during the Olympics, when the Chinese government dramatically cut vehicle and factory emissions.
Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, a professor of civil and environmental engineering, will be one of six recipients of the 2009 Edward O. Wilson Biodiversity Technology Pioneer Award. The honors will be the first of an annual award presented to scientists whose work has helped advance the biodiversity of life on planet Earth.
Clay Williams was named in mid-October to the board of directors of Benchmark Electronics, Inc., a Texas-based company that provides high technology electronics and services to manufacturers of telecommunication equipment, computers, medical devices and other related products.
John Ochsendorf, a structural engineer and architectural historian, was named as a 2008 MacArthur Fellow, a prestigious prize often referred to as a "Genius Award."
David Billington, a Princeton professor of civil and environmental engineering, has received the 2008 Distinguished Award of Merit from the American Council of Engineering Companies.
Civil and Environmental Engineering graduate student Trenton Franz created a video diary on his field research in Kenya as part of the Grand Challenges Program. Franz is a member of an interdisciplinary team working in the Laikipia-Samburu region of central Kenya to better understand the interplay of vegetation, climate, wildlife, livestock and humans on this remote section of the savanna. Video by Trenton Franz. Editing by Taofik Kolade.
At first glance, engineer Felix Candela's creations seem more like sculptures than buildings. Yet they are so sturdy that a group of students has spent the past three summers building models and studying how the Spanish-born Candela blended art and engineering.
Marsha Anderson Bomar *78 received the Herman J. Hoose Distinguished Service Award from the Institute of Transportation Engineers – Southern District in recognition of her leadership and contributions to transportation engineering.
Princeton researchers published a paper in the May 8, 2008, issue of the journal Nature which shows that water dynamics play a pivotal role in the biodiversity of river networks. The team created a computer simulation that allows them to predict - based on rainfall measurements and on how rivers connect to one another — how many species of fish will occupy any given region. In this interview, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Civil and
Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, has been named a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
With the goal of saving lives and preventing environmental and structural damage during real tsunamis, Princeton Engineering researchers created experimental mini-tsunamis in Oregon this summer.
Summer thunderstorms become much more fierce when they collide with a city than they would otherwise be in the open countryside, according to research led by Princeton engineers.
The New Jersey Professional Engineers in Construction presented the Sol Seid Award of Excellence Scholarship to Kira Schiavello, a senior majoring in civil and environmental engineering.
Preston Haskell is one of three people spearheading the "Drive for 5" campaign to increase the number of volunteer mentors from corporations in the community to tutor school children in Jacksonville, Florida.
From outstanding research to dedicated service to the School of Engineering and Applied Science, members of this year's graduating class were recognized for their achievements and contributions at the engineering Class Day ceremony Monday, June 4.
Sara Piaskowy, a senior majoring in civil and environmental engineering, recently solved a mystery: Why does Bayview Avenue, one of the main roads in Seaside Park, N.J., flood regularly despite working storm sewers and a two-foot barrier wall separating it from the waters of nearby Barnegat Bay.
John Drzik, who earned a B.S.E. in civil engineering from Princeton in 1983, has been named president and CEO of the Oliver Wyman Group, which was recently formed to consolidate three top management consultancies -- Mercer Management Consulting, Mercer Oliver Wyman and Mercer Delta Organizational Consulting.
Steve Papa, who earned his B.S.E. in civil engineering at Princeton University, will participate in the MIT Sloan CIO Symposium, Network for Competitive Advantage: People, Partners and Processes. He will serve on the keynote CIO panel, "Leveraging Collective Insights to Enhance Value."
In a mutually beneficial partnership, Princeton students are helping a local organization reduce its impact on the environment as they strengthen their problem-solving skills and build a stronger connection to the community.
The National Ground Water Association has chosen Michael Celia as the 2008 Henry Darcy Distinguished Lecturer. The prestigious honor supports the travel of one expert to share his or her work in lectures at universities throughout the world.
Two of the world's worst natural disasters in recent years stemmed from different causes on opposite sides of the globe, but actually had much in common, according to researchers who are part of a large National Science Foundation-funded research initiative that has been studying both the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 and the Hurricane Katrina of 2005.
Sarah Morrison Barpoulis has been elected to serve on the board of directors of Reliant Energy Inc., a Houston, Texas-based provider of electricity and energy services.
Two Princeton Engineering alumni helped lead a major review of the U.S. government project to clean up millions of gallons of nuclear waste at a former weapons plant in Hanford, Wash.
Burning oil and coal, which are rich in carbon, releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Until alternative fuels become mainstream, one viable option to cut carbon emissions is to capture the gas and inject it into sediments deep underground, according to Princeton's Michael Celia *79, chair of civil and environmental engineering.
David P. Billington is well known for connecting engineering to other disciplines within the University -- to the humanities, art, science and politics. His courses in "Structures and the Urban Environment" and "Engineering in the Modern World" combine the study of engineering with an exploration of the aesthetic and social values intrinsic to it, an association of ideas that have made them some of the most popular courses among engineering and non-engineering students for decades.
Princeton University bestowed its highest teaching award on chemical engineering Professor Sankaran (Sundar) Sundaresan during commencement ceremonies June 6, praising him for an unfailing dedication to illuminating complex subjects for students.
Members of this year's class of graduating engineering students are leaving Princeton with impressive records of accomplishments and ambitious plans for the future, Dean H. Vincent Poor told students and their families during the engineering Class Day ceremony Monday, June 5.
Just a few years ago, Bernice Rosenzweig wasn’t quite sure what engineers did and never encountered them. Now a second year Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rosenzweig is seeking to engineer a new approach to improving water quality.
Dr. Mary Hill, a researcher at the U.S. Geological Survey, was awarded the prestigious M. King Hubbert Award at the 2005 Ground Water Expo, December 13-15, in Cobb County, Georgia.
A new Princeton engineering class focuses on the study of the relations of buildings, space, time and societal dynamics.