Civilization

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{theory, work, human}
{country, population, people}
{company, market, business}
{rate, high, increase}
{land, century, early}
{war, force, army}
{language, word, form}
{god, call, give}
{group, member, jewish}
{city, population, household}
{specie, animal, plant}
{math, energy, light}

Civilization, or civilisation, is a sometimes controversial term which has been used in several related ways. Primarily, the term has been used to refer to human cultures which are complex in terms of technology, science, politics and division of labour. Such civilizations are generally urbanized. In classical contexts civilized peoples were called this in contrast to "barbarian" peoples, while in modern contexts civilized peoples have been contrasted to "primitive" peoples.

In modern academic discussions however, there is a tendency to use the term in a more neutral way to mean approximately the same thing as "culture" and can refer to any human society (for example, "Ancient Greek Civilization") associated with any particular geographical location at a particular time, historical or current. Still, even when used in this second sense, the word is often restricted to apply only to societies that have attained a particular level of advancement, especially the founding of cities, with the word "city" defined in various ways.

The level of advancement of a civilization is often measured by its progress in agriculture, long-distance trade, occupational specialization, and urbanism. Aside from these core elements, civilization is often marked by any combination of a number of secondary elements, including a developed transportation system, writing, standards of measurement (currency, etc.), contract and tort-based legal systems, characteristic art styles (which may pertain to specific cultures), monumental architecture, mathematics, science, sophisticated metallurgy, politics, and astronomy.

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