Color blindness

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Color blindness or color vision deficiency is the decreased ability to perceive differences between some of the colors that others can distinguish. It is most often of genetic nature, but may also occur because of some eye, nerve, or brain damage, or exposure to certain chemicals. The English chemist John Dalton published the first scientific paper on this subject in 1798, "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours",[1] after the realization of his own color blindness. Because of Dalton's work, the condition was often called daltonism, although this term is now used for a type of color blindness called deuteranopia.

Color blindness is usually classed as a mild disability, but in certain situations, color blind individuals have an advantage over those with normal color vision. There are some studies which conclude that color blind individuals are better at penetrating certain color camouflages and it has been suggested that this may be the evolutionary explanation for the surprisingly high frequency of congenital red-green color blindness.[2]

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