Condorcet method

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A Condorcet method is any single-winner election method that meets the Condorcet criterion, that is, which always selects the Condorcet winner, the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election, if such a candidate exists.

In modern examples, voters rank candidates in order of preference. There are then multiple, slightly differing methods for calculating the winner, due to the need to resolve circular ambiguities—including the Kemeny-Young method, Ranked Pairs, and the Schulze method. Almost all of these methods give the same result if there are fewer than 4 candidates in the circularly-ambiguous Smith set and voters separately rank all of them.

Condorcet methods are named for the eighteenth-century French mathematician and philosopher Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, the Marquis de Condorcet. Ramon Llull had devised one of the first Condorcet methods in 1299,[1] but this method is based on an iterative procedure rather than a ranked ballot.

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