Constantine III of Scotland

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Constantine, son of Cuilén (Mediaeval Gaelic: Causantín mac Cuiléin; Modern Gaelic: Còiseam mac Chailein), known in most modern regnal lists as Constantine III[1], (before 971–997) was king of Scots from 995 to 997. He was the son of Cuilén, King of Scotland (Cuilén mac Iduilb).

Constantine became king upon the death of Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim), supposedly killed by Finnguala, daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, a killing with which Constantine is associated in several accounts. John of Fordun, perhaps confusing him with Eógan II of Strathclyde, known as "the Bald", refers to Constantine as "the Bald". He reigned for eighteen months according to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba.

The Annals of Tigernach report that he was killed in a battle between the Scots in 997. His death is placed by the Chronicle at Rathinveramond at the mouth of the Almond where it meets the River Tay near Perth. This appears to have been a royal centre, close to Scone and Forteviot, as Donald I (Domnall mac Ailpín) is said to have died there in 862. Constantine's killer is named as Cináed mac Maíl Coluim ("Kenneth son of Malcolm"), probably in error for either Kenneth, son of Dub (Cináed mac Duib), who became Kenneth III on Constantine's death, or perhaps for Malcolm, son of Kenneth II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda).

Constantine is not known to have any descendants and he was the last of the line of Áed (Áed mac Cináeda) to have been king.



For primary sources see also External links below.

  • Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500–1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
  • Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8
  • Smyth, Alfred P. Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80-1000. Reprinted, Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1998. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7

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