Cyprinid

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Acheilognathinae
Cultrinae
Cyprininae
Danioninae
Gobioninae
Hypophthalmichthyinae
Labeoninae (disputed)
Leuciscinae
Psilorhynchinae
Rasborinae (polyphyletic?)
Squaliobarbinae (disputed)
Tincinae
and see text

The family Cyprinidae, from the Ancient Greek kyprînos (κυπρῖνος, "carp"), consists of the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (e.g. the barbs and barbels). Commonly called the carp family or the minnow family, its members are also known as cyprinids. It is the largest family of fresh-water fish, with over 2,400 species in about 220 genera. The family belongs to the order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make up two-thirds.[1]

Following the discovery that the relatively unknown mountain carps are a peculiar lineage of cyprinids, they have been included tentatively as subfamily Psilorhynchinae.[2]

Contents

Description

Cyprinids are stomachless fish and the jaws are toothless. Food can be effectively chewed by the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow. These pharyngeal teeth allow the fish to make chewing motions against a chewing plate formed by a procession of the skull. The pharyngheal teeth are species specific and are used by specialists to determine the species. Strong pharyncheal teeth allow fish like the common carp and ide to eat hard baits like snails and bivalves.


Hearing is a well developed sense since the cyprinds have the Weberian organ, three specialized vertebra processions that transfer motion of the gas bladder to the inner ear. This construction is also used to observe motion of the gas bladder due to atmospheric conditions or depth changes. The cyprinids are physostomes because the pneumatic duct is retained in adult stages and the fish are able to gulp air to fill the gas bladder or they can dispose excess gas to the gut.

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