Degenerate matter

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Degenerate matter is matter which has such extraordinarily high density that the dominant contribution to its pressure is attributable to the Pauli exclusion principle.[1] The pressure maintained by a body of degenerate matter is called the degeneracy pressure, and arises because the Pauli principle prevents the constituent particles from occupying identical quantum states. Any attempt to force them close enough together that they are not clearly separated by position must place them in different energy levels. Therefore, reducing the volume requires forcing many of the particles into higher-energy quantum states. This requires additional compression force, and is made manifest as a resisting pressure.

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Concept

Imagine that a plasma is cooled and compressed repeatedly. Eventually, we will not be able to compress the plasma any further, because the exclusion principle states that two fermions cannot share the same quantum state. When in this state, since there is no extra space for any particles, we can also say that a particle's location is extremely defined. Therefore, since (according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle) ΔpΔx ≥ ħ/2 where Δp is the uncertainty in the particle's momentum and Δx is the uncertainty in position, then we must say that their momentum is extremely uncertain since the molecules are located in a very confined space. Therefore, even though the plasma is cold, the molecules must be moving very fast on average. This leads to the conclusion that if you want to compress an object into a very small space, you must use tremendous force to control its particles' momentum.

Unlike a classical ideal gas, whose pressure is proportional to its temperature (P=nkT/V, where P is pressure, V is the volume, n is the number of particles—typically atoms or molecules—k is Boltzmann's constant, and T is temperature), the pressure exerted by degenerate matter depends only weakly on its temperature. In particular, the pressure remains nonzero even at absolute zero temperature. At relatively low densities, the pressure of a fully degenerate gas is given by P=K(n/V)5/3
, where K depends on the properties of the particles making up the gas. At very high densities, where most of the particles are forced into quantum states with relativistic energies, the pressure is given by P=K'(n/V)4/3
, where K' again depends on the properties of the particles making up the gas.[2]

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