El Greco

related topics
{church, century, christian}
{theory, work, human}
{son, year, death}
{work, book, publish}
{god, call, give}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}
{country, population, people}
{law, state, case}
{food, make, wine}
{language, word, form}
{line, north, south}

a. ^ Theotokópoulos acquired the name "El Greco" in Italy, where the custom of identifying a man by designating a country or city of origin was a common practice. The curious form of the article (El) may be from the Venetian dialect or more likely from the Spanish, though in Spanish his name would be "El Griego".[2] The Cretan master was generally known in Italy and Spain as Dominico Greco, and was called only after his death El Greco.[57]

b. ^ According to a contemporary, El Greco acquired his name, not only for his place of origin, but also for the sublimity of his art: "Out of the great esteem he was held in he was called the Greek (il Greco)" (comment of Giulio Cesare Mancini about El Greco in his Chronicles, which were written a few years after El Greco's death).[107]

c. ^ There is an ongoing dispute about El Greco's birthplace. Most researchers and scholars give Candia as his birthplace.[108] Nonetheless, according to Achileus A. Kyrou, a prominent Greek journalist of the 20th century, El Greco was born in Fodele and the ruins of his family's house are still extant in the place where old Fodele was (the village later changed location because of the raids of the pirates).[40] Candia's claim to him is based on two documents from a trial in 1606, when the painter was 65. Fodele natives argue that El Greco probably told everyone in Spain he was from Heraklion because it was the closest known city next to tiny Fodele[109]

d. ^ This document comes from the notarial archives of Candia and was published in 1962.[110] Menegos is the Venetian dialect form of Doménicos, and Sgourafos (σγουράφος=ζωγράφος) is a Greek term for painter.[57]

e. ^ The arguments of these Catholic sources are based on the lack of Orthodox archival baptismal records on Crete and on a relaxed interchange between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic rites during El Greco's youth.[111] Based on the assessment that his art reflects the religious spirit of Roman Catholic Spain, and on a reference in his last will and testament, where he described himself as a "devout Catholic", some scholars assume that El Greco was part of the vibrant Catholic Cretan minority or that he converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism before leaving the island.[112]

f. ^ According to archival research in the late 1990s, El Greco was still in Candia at the age of twenty-six. It was there where his works, created in the spirit of the post-Byzantine painters of the Cretan School, were greatly esteemed. On December 26, 1566 El Greco sought permission from the Venetian authorities to sell a "panel of the Passion of Christ executed on a gold background" ("un quadro della Passione del Nostro Signor Giesu Christo, dorato") in a lottery.[57] The Byzantine icon by young Doménicos depicting the Passion of Christ, painted on a gold ground, was appraised and sold on December 27, 1566 in Candia for the agreed price of seventy gold ducats (The panel was valued by two artists; one of them was icon-painter Georgios Klontzas. One valuation was eighty ducats and the other seventy), equal in value to a work by Titian or Tintoretto of that period.[113] Therefore, it seems that El Greco traveled to Venice sometime after December 27, 1566.[114] In one of his last articles, Wethey reassessed his previous estimations and accepted that El Greco left Crete in 1567.[104] According to other archival material — drawings El Greco sent to a Cretan cartographer — he was in Venice by 1568.[113]

Full article ▸

related documents
Rowan Williams
Pope Leo XIII
Classicism
Sola scriptura
Bauhaus
Giordano Bruno
Filioque
Celtic Christianity
Dark Ages
Synod of Whitby
John Wycliffe
Caspar David Friedrich
Congregationalist polity
Giorgione
Abstract expressionism
Mannerism
Puritan
Jansenism
Perseverance of the saints
Frans Hals
Thomas Eakins
Martin Bucer
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
Full communion
Albrecht Dürer
Supersessionism
Dissolution of the Monasteries
Madonna (art)
Thirty-Nine Articles
Vic