Emerald

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Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.[2] Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of mineral hardness.[2] Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor.

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Etymology

The word "Emerald" is derived (via Old French: Esmeraude and Middle English: Emeraude), from Vulgar Latin: Esmaralda/Esmaraldus, a variant of Latin Smaragdus, which originated in Greek: σμάραγδος (smaragdos; "green gem"); its original source being either the Hebrew word אזמרגד izmargad meaning "emerald" or "green"[3] or the Sanskrit word मरग्दम् marakata meaning "green." The name could also be related to the Semitic word baraq (בָּרָק ;البُراق‎; "lightning" or "shine") (cf. Hebrew: ברקת bareqeth and Arabic: برق barq "lightning"). It is the same source for the names Persian (زمرّد zomorrod), Turkish (zümrüt), Sanskrit (मरग्दम् maragdam), Georgian (ზურმუხტი; zurmukhti), Russian (изумруд; izumrud)[4] and Armenian zmruxt.

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