Espresso

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Caffè espresso, or just espresso is a concentrated beverage brewed by forcing hot water under pressure through finely ground coffee.

Compared to other coffee brewing methods, espresso often has a thicker consistency, a higher concentration of dissolved solids, and crema (foam).[clarification needed] As a result of the pressurized brewing process, all of the flavours and chemicals in a typical cup of coffee are very concentrated.[citation needed] For this reason, espresso is the base for other drinks, such as lattes, cappuccino, macchiato, mochas, and americanos.[citation needed]

The first machines were introduced in Italy at the beginning of the 20th Century, with the first patent being filed by Luigi Bezzera of Milan, Italy, in 1901, who invented a steam pressure system.[1] In 1938, Cresemonesi introduced a piston based espresso machine, which eliminated the burnt taste associated with the steam pressure units.[1]

While espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most beverages, compared on the basis of usual serving sizes, a 30 mL (1 US fluid ounce) shot of espresso has about half the caffeine of a standard 180 mL (6 US fluid ounces) cup of drip brewed coffee, which varies from 80 to 130 mg,[2] and hence a 60 mL (2  US fl oz) double shot of espresso has about the same caffeine as a 180 ml (6 US fl oz) cup of drip brewed coffee. In coffee brewing terms, espresso and brewed coffee should have the same extraction (about 20% of the coffee grounds are extracted into the coffee liquid), but espresso has a higher brew strength (concentration, in terms of dissolved coffee solids per unit volume), due to its lower water content.

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