Food preservation

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Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or slow down spoilage (loss of quality, edibility or nutritional value).

Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Food preservation also includes processes which inhibit natural discoloration that can occur during food preparation, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut.

Many processes designed to preserve food will involve a number of food preservation methods. Preserving fruit, by turning into jam, for example, involves boiling (to reduce the fruit’s moisture content and to kill bacteria, yeasts, etc), sugaring (to prevent their re-growth) and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination).

Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered the character of the food being preserved. In many cases these changes have now come to be seen as desirable qualities – cheese, yoghurt and pickled onions being common examples.

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