Foreign relations of Mongolia

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{country, population, people}
{company, market, business}
{line, north, south}
{law, state, case}

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Mongolia were established in 1964.[1] Cairo currently hosts Mongolia's only embassy on the African continent.[2][3] In 2001, Mongolia sent policemen to Egypt to attend trainings sessions on anti-terrorism and the prevention of drug trafficking.[4] Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi and his wife A. Oyunbileg paid an official visit to Egypt in April 2004, during which he invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to pay him a return visit in Mongolia.[5] Almost exactly one year later, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit visited Mongolia, during which he began the planning of mutual visits of the ministers of finance of the two countries.[6]



India established diplomatic relations in December 1955. India was the first country outside the Soviet block to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia. Since then, there have been treaties of mutual friendship and cooperation between the two countries in 1973, 1994, 2001 and 2004.


North Korea

Relations date back to 1948, when Mongolia recognised Kim Il-sung's Soviet-backed government in the North. North Korean refugees are a delicate issue between the two governments. In 2005, South Korean charity groups received from the Mongolian government an allocation of 1.3 square kilometres of land at an unspecified location 40 kilometres outside of Ulan Bator to establish a refugee camp.[7] However, as of November 2006, Miyeegombiin Enkhbold, Mongolia's prime minister, officially denied the existence of such camps. One scholar estimated that 500 North Korean refugees enter Mongolia each month, along with some legal migrant labourers who come under an inter-governmental agreement to work in light industry and infrastructure projects.[8]

People's Republic of China

In the Post-Cold War era, China has taken major steps to normalize its relationship with Mongolia, emphasizing its respect for Mongolia's sovereignty and independence. In 1994, Chinese Premier Li Peng signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation.[9] China has become Mongolia's biggest trade partner and source of foreign investment as well as the destination for 48% of Mongolian exports.[10] Bilateral trade reached USD 1.13 billion by the first nine months of 2007, registering an increase of 90% from 2006.[11] China offered to allow the use of its Tianjin port to give Mongolia and its goods access to trade with the Asia Pacific region.[10] China also expanded its investments in Mongolia's mining industries, seeking to exploit the country's natural resources.[10][11] Mongolia and China have stepped up cooperation on fighting terrorism and bolstering regional security. China is likely to support Mongolia's membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.[10]

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