Frombork

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Frombork [ˈfrɔmbɔrk] (German: About this sound Frauenburg ) is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon, in Braniewo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. It had a population of 2,528 as of 2005.

The town was first mentioned in the 13th century. In the early 16th century it was the residence of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus who used it as a site for several of his observations. The town and its 700-year-old cathedral were badly damaged in World War II. The German population was expelled and replaced by Poles who had themselves been expelled from former Eastern Poland by the Soviets. After the war the cathedral was meticulously reconstructed and is again a popular tourist destination.

Frombork is known as “The Jewel of Warmia” because of its many historical sites. The Museum of Copernicus in Frombork [1] holds exhibitions related to the astronomer, as well as to astronomy in general, and includes a planetarium. One of the biggest attractions is also the annual International Festival of Organ Music, held every summer. Between 1975 and 1998 the town was part of the Elbląg Voivodeship.

Contents

History

Early history

The town was founded as a defensive stronghold on an Old Prussian site. In 1224 at Catania, Emperor Frederick II declared Prussia directly subordinate to the church and Holy Roman Empire. Later in the same year the pope assigned Bishop William of Modena as the papal legate to Prussia. With the imperial Golden Bull of Rimini, the Teutonic Knights were granted control of the region, which they subsequently conquered. According to local legend, the Old Prussian inhabitants were baptised by Anselm of Meissen[citation needed], a priest of the Teutonic Knights and the first Bishop of the Bishopric of Warmia which was created in 1242 by William of Modena.

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