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Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (pronounced /ˈkʰæntɔ̝ˑ(ɚ)/ KANNtor; German: /ɡ̥eˈɔʁk (ˈfɛʁdinant ˈluːtvɪç ˈfiːlɪp) ˈkʰantɔʁ/) March 3 [O.S. February 19] 1845^{[1]} – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician, best known as the inventor of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of onetoone correspondence between sets, defined infinite and wellordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are "more numerous" than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's theorem implies the existence of an "infinity of infinities". He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact of which he was well aware.^{[2]}
Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers was originally regarded as so counterintuitive—even shocking—that it encountered resistance from mathematical contemporaries such as Leopold Kronecker and Henri Poincaré^{[3]} and later from Hermann Weyl and L. E. J. Brouwer, while Ludwig Wittgenstein raised philosophical objections. Some Christian theologians (particularly neoScholastics) saw Cantor's work as a challenge to the uniqueness of the absolute infinity in the nature of God,^{[4]} on one occasion equating the theory of transfinite numbers with pantheism.^{[5]} The objections to his work were occasionally fierce: Poincaré referred to Cantor's ideas as a "grave disease" infecting the discipline of mathematics,^{[6]} and Kronecker's public opposition and personal attacks included describing Cantor as a "scientific charlatan", a "renegade" and a "corrupter of youth."^{[7]} Writing decades after Cantor's death, Wittgenstein lamented that mathematics is "ridden through and through with the pernicious idioms of set theory," which he dismissed as "utter nonsense" that is "laughable" and "wrong".^{[8]} Cantor's recurring bouts of depression from 1884 to the end of his life were once blamed on the hostile attitude of many of his contemporaries,^{[9]} but these episodes can now be seen as probable manifestations of a bipolar disorder.^{[10]}
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