Goitre

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A goitre or goiter (Latin gutteria, struma), is a swelling in the thyroid gland,[1] which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box). Goitre usually occurs when the thyroid gland is not functioning properly.

Contents

Classification

They are classified in different ways:

  • Non-Toxic:

1. Simple 2. Multinodular 3. Uninodular

  • Toxic:

1. Diffuse (Graves) 2. Toxic multinodular 3. Toxic nodule

  • Special:

1. Cancer 2. Thyroiditides 3. Inflammatory

  • Various causes:

1. Chronic infection 2. Actinomycosis 3. Amyloidosis


Other type of classification:

  • Class I - palpation struma - in normal posture of the head, it cannot be seen; it is only found by palpation.
  • Class II - the struma is palpative and can be easily seen.
  • Class III - the struma is very large and is retrosternal; pressure results in compression marks.

Signs and symptoms

In general, goitre unassociated with any hormonal abnormalities will not cause any symptoms aside from the presence of anterior neck mass. However, for particularly large masses, compression of the local structures may result in difficulty in breathing or swallowing. In those presenting with these symptoms, malignancy must be considered.

Meanwhile, toxic goitres will present with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis such as palpitations, hyperactivity, weight loss despite increased appetite, and heat intolerance.

Causes

Worldwide, the most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency. In countries that use iodized salt, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause.[2]

Other causes are:overproduction or unproduction of hormones[citation needed]

Hypothyroid

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