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Hermosillo (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾmoˈsiʎo], formerly called Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic) is a city and municipality located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and main economic center for the state and region.[1] It contains almost all of the state’s manufacturing and has thirty percent of its population.[2] The major manufacturing sector is automobiles, which was begun in the 1980s when Ford built the Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly Plant.[3] The municipality is large, encompassing over 3,800 other communities and reaching to the shores of the Gulf of California.[1] Here, Bahía Kino (Kino Bay) is a major tourism draw for the municipality with plans to expand its tourism infrastructure.



Evidence of the area’s first inhabitants date back 35,000 years, much of which are from a site called the San Dieguito Complex, located in the El Pinacate Zone. Evidence of agriculture dates back 2,500 years.[3] In the pre-Hispanic era, this area was inhabited by the Seri, Tepoca and Pima peoples.[1][3]

The first encounter between the Spanish and natives occurred in the middle of the 16th century, when explorers were sent here in search of gold, which did not exist. The first missionaries arrived in the state of Sonora around 1614, and Eusebio Francisco Kino arrived in 1687, founding a mission in nearby Cucurpe. What is now the states of Sonora and Sinaloa was loosely organized as the provinces of Sonora, Ostimura and Sinaloa.[3]

In 1700, three small Spanish villages were founded in what is now the municipality of Hermosillo, Nuestra Señora del Pópulo, Nuestra Señora de Los Angeles y la Santísima Trinidad del Pitic. The native peoples here soon became hostile to the Spanish and managed to drive them out several times in the early 18th century. In 1716, the Spanish offered irrigated lands for farmers to natives who agreed to abide by Spanish law. Around 1726, a fort named the Presidio of Pitic was constructed to stop the domination of this area by the natives, especially the Seri. However, the situation did not settle soon so that the first church was not built until 1787 and the first formal parish was not established until 1822.[1][3]

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