History of Bhutan

related topics
{country, population, people}
{war, force, army}
{government, party, election}
{son, year, death}
{god, call, give}
{church, century, christian}
{land, century, early}
{law, state, case}
{area, part, region}
{company, market, business}
{service, military, aircraft}
{school, student, university}
{math, number, function}
{theory, work, human}
{game, team, player}
{car, race, vehicle}

Bhutan's early history is steeped in mythology and remains obscure. It may have been inhabited as early as 2000 B.C., but not much was known until the introduction of Tibetan Buddhism in the 9th century. when turmoil in Tibet forced many monks to flee to Bhutan. In the 12th century, the Drukpa Kagyupa school was established and remains the dominant form of Buddhism in Bhutan today. The country's political history is intimately tied to its religious history and the relations among the various monastic schools and monasteries.[1]

Bhutan is one of the only countries which has been independent throughout its history, never conquered, occupied, or governed by an outside power. Although there has been speculation that it was under the Kamarupa Kingdom or the Tibetan Empire in the 7th to 9th centuries, firm evidence is lacking. From the time historical records are clear, Bhutan has continuously and successfully defended its sovereignty.[2]

The consolidation of Bhutan occurred in 1616 when Ngawanag Namgyal, a man (lama) from Tibet, defeated three Tibetan invasions, subjugated rival religious schools, codified the Tsa Yig, an intricate and comprehensive system of law, and established himself as ruler (Shabdrung) over a system of ecclesiastical and civil administrators. After his death, infighting and civil war eroded the power of the shabdrung for the next 200 years when in 1885, Ugyen Wangchuck was able to consolidate power and cultivated closer ties with the British in India.[1]

In 1907, Ugyen Wangchuck was elected as the hereditary ruler of Bhutan, crowned on December 17, 1907, and installed as the head of state Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King). In 1910, King Ugyen and the British signed the Treaty of Punakha which provided that British India would not interfere in the internal affairs of Bhutan if the country accepted external advice in its external relations. When Ugyen Wangchuck died in 1926, his son Jigme Wangchuck became the next ruler, and when India gained independence in 1947, the new Indian Government recognized Bhutan as an independent country. In 1949, India and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, which provided that India would not interfere in Bhutan's internal affairs but would be guided by India in its foreign policy. Succeeded in 1952 by his son Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, Bhutan began to slowly emerge from its isolation and began a program of planned development. Bhutan became a member of the United Nations in 1971, and the National Assembly was established and a new code of law, as well as the Royal Bhutanese Army and the High Court.[1]

In 1972, Jigme Singye Wanchuck ascended the throne at age 16. He emphasized modern education, decentralization of governance, the development of hydroelectricity and tourism and improvements in rural developments. He was perhaps best known internationally for his overarching development philosophy of "gross national happiness." It recognizes that there are many dimensions to development and that economic goals alone are not sufficient. Satisfied with Bhutan's transitioning democratization process, he abdicated in December 2006 rather than wait until the promulgation of the new constitution in 2008. His son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, became King upon his abdication.[1]

Full article ▸

related documents
History of Indonesia
History of Algeria
History of Slovakia
History of Sri Lanka
History of the Republic of the Congo
Georgia (country)
History of Rwanda
History of Armenia
History of Portugal
History of Ukraine
Western Sahara
History of Belarus
History of Catalonia
History of Germans in Russia and the Soviet Union
Ming Dynasty
Foreign relations of Israel
History of Korea
History of the Netherlands
History of China
History of Namibia
Diplomacy
History of Mexico
Ham Seok-heon
History of Finland
Pashtunistan
Baltic Germans
Rwanda
Uyghur people
Hmong people
Rhodesia