History of Ireland

related topics
{government, party, election}
{war, force, army}
{country, population, people}
{church, century, christian}
{land, century, early}
{language, word, form}
{son, year, death}
{company, market, business}
{black, white, people}
{woman, child, man}
{island, water, area}
{county, mile, population}
{film, series, show}
{math, energy, light}
{god, call, give}
{town, population, incorporate}
{village, small, smallsup}
{borough, population, unit_pref}

The first known settlement in Ireland began around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from continental Europe, probably via a land bridge.[1] Few archaeological traces remain of this group, but their descendants and later Neolithic arrivals, particularly from the Iberian Peninsula, were responsible for major Neolithic sites such as Newgrange.[2][3] On the arrival of Saint Patrick and other Christian missionaries in the early to mid-5th century AD, Christianity began to subsume the indigenous Celtic religion, a process that was completed by the year 600.

From around AD 800, more than a century of Viking invasions brought havoc upon the monastic culture and on the island's various regional dynasties, yet both of these institutions proved strong enough to survive and assimilate the invaders. The coming of Cambro-Norman mercenaries under Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed Strongbow, in 1169 marked the beginning of more than 700 years of direct Norman and, later, English involvement in Ireland. The English crown did not begin asserting full control of the island until after the English Reformation, when questions over the loyalty of Irish vassals provided the initial impetus for a series of military campaigns between 1534 and 1691. This period was also marked by an English policy of plantation which led to the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant settlers. As the military and political defeat of Gaelic Ireland became more clear in the early seventeenth century, the role of religion as a new division in Ireland became more pronounced. From this period on, sectarian conflict became a recurrent theme in Irish history.

The overthrow, in 1613, of the Catholic majority in the Irish parliament was realised principally through the creation of numerous new boroughs, all of which were Protestant-dominated. By the end of the seventeenth century all Catholics, representing some 85% of Ireland's population then, were banned from the Irish parliament. Political power rested entirely in the hands of an Anglo settler-colonial, and more specifically the state church (Church of Ireland) minority, while the Catholic and some Protestant denominations suffered severe political and economic privations. In 1801, the Irish Parliament was abolished and Ireland became an integral part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union. Catholics were still banned from sitting in that new parliament until Catholic Emancipation was attained in 1829, the principal condition of which was the removal of the poorer, and thus more radical, Irish freeholders from the franchise.

The Irish Parliamentary Party strove from the 1880s to attain Home Rule self-government through the parliamentary constitutional movement eventually winning the Home Rule Act 1914, though it was suspended on the outbreak of World War I.

Full article ▸

related documents
Republic of China
History of the Philippines
Neville Chamberlain
Federalist Party (United States)
Politics of Belgium
Alberto Fujimori
Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah
Irish Republic
Nancy Pelosi
Politics of the People's Republic of China
Politics of Belarus
Bharatiya Janata Party
Kuomintang
Indian National Congress
John McCain
British Columbia
Democratic–Republican Party
Politics of France
Politics of the Netherlands
Liberal Unionist Party
Politics of Canada
Éamon de Valera
Two-round system
Prime Minister of Canada
European Parliament
The Left Party.PDS
Devolution
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Hubert Humphrey
Ulster Unionist Party