(2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is a common non-proteinogenic amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e.g., in Protein Data Bank.
Hydroxyproline differs from proline by the presence of a hydroxyl (OH) group attached to the gamma carbon atom.
Other hydroxyprolines also exist in nature, the most notable ones being 2,3-cis-, 3,4-trans-, and 3,4-dihydroxyproline, which occurs in diatom cell walls and is postulated to have a role in silica deposition. Hydroxyproline is also found in the walls of oomycetes, fungus-like protists related to diatoms.
Production and function
Hydroxyproline is produced by hydroxylation of the amino acid proline by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase following protein synthesis (as a post-translational modification). The enzyme catalysed reaction takes place in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Hydroxyproline is a major component of the protein collagen. Hydroxyproline and proline play key roles for collagen stability. They permit the sharp twisting of the collagen helix. In the canonical collagen Xaa-Yaa-Gly triad (where Xaa and Yaa are any amino acid), a proline occupying the Yaa position is hydroxylated to give a Xaa-Hyp-Gly sequence. This modification of the proline residue increases the stability of the collagen triple helix. It was initially proposed that the stabilization was due to water molecules forming a hydrogen bonding network linking the prolyl hydroxyl groups and the main-chain carbonyl groups. It was subsequently shown that the increase in stability is primarily through stereoelectronic effects and that hydration of the hydroxyproline residues provides little or no additional stability.
Hydroxylation of proline has been shown to be involved in targeting Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha subunit (HIF-1 alpha) for degradation by proteolysis. Under normoxia (normal oxygen conditions) EGLN1 protein hydroxylates the proline at the 564 position of HIF-1 alpha, which allows ubiquitylation by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) and subsequent targeting for proteasome degradation.
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