Hypnosis

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Hypnotherapy
Stage hypnosis
Self-hypnosis

Animal magnetism
Franz Mesmer
History of hypnosis
James Braid

Marques of Puységur
James Esdaile
John Elliotson
Jean-Martin Charcot
Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault
Hippolyte Bernheim
Pierre Janet
Sigmund Freud
Émile Coué
Morton Prince
Clark L. Hull
Andrew Salter
Theodore R. Sarbin
Milton H. Erickson
Ernest Hilgard
Martin Theodore Orne
André Muller Weitzenhoffer
Nicholas Spanos

Hypnotic susceptibility
Suggestion
Post-hypnotic suggestion
Age regression in therapy
Neuro-linguistic programming
Hypnotherapy in the UK

Hypnosis is a mental state (according to "state theory") or imaginative role-enactment (according to "non-state theory").[1][2][3][4] It is usually induced by a procedure known as a hypnotic induction, which is commonly composed of a long series of preliminary instructions and suggestions.[5] Hypnotic suggestions may be delivered by a hypnotist in the presence of the subject, or may be self-administered ("self-suggestion" or "autosuggestion"). The use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis".

The words hypnosis and hypnotism both derive from the term neuro-hypnotism (nervous sleep) coined by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers ("Mesmerism" or "animal magnetism"), but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked.

Contrary to a popular misconception – that hypnosis is a form of unconsciousness resembling sleep – contemporary research suggests that hypnotic subjects are fully awake and are focussing attention, with a corresponding decrease in their peripheral awareness.[6] Subjects also show an increased response to suggestions.[7] In the first book on the subject, Neurypnology (1843), Braid described "hypnotism" as a state of physical relaxation accompanied and induced by mental concentration ("abstraction").[8]

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