Jansenism

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Jansenism was a theology and a movement, condemned as a heresy by Pope Innocent X in 1655, that arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent (1545–1563). It emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. Originating in the writings of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Otto Jansen, Jansenism formed a distinct movement within the Catholic Church from the 16th to 18th centuries, and found its most important stronghold in the Parisian convent of Port-Royal, haven for many important theologians and writers (Antoine Arnauld, Pierre Nicole, Blaise Pascal, Jean Racine, etc.).

The term itself was coined by its Jesuit opponents, who accused them of being close to Calvinists, as Jansenists identified themselves as rigorous followers of Augustinism.[1] Several propositions supported by Jansenists, in particular concerning the relationship between humans' free will and "efficacious grace", were condemned by the Pope, and the movement thus deemed heretical.[1]

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