Jiang Zemin

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Jiang Zemin (pronounced [t͡ɕjɑ́ŋ t͡sɤ̌mǐn]; born 17 August 1926, in Yangzhou, Jiangsu) is the "core of the third generation" of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004.

Jiang, an engineer, came to power in the wake of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, replacing Zhao Ziyang, who was purged for being too conciliatory towards the protestors, as General Secretary of Party. With the waning influence of Deng Xiaoping and the other members of Eight Elders due to old age, Jiang effectively became the "paramount leader" in the 1990s. Under his leadership, China experienced substantial developmental growth with reforms, saw the peaceful return of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom and Macau from Portugal, and improved its relations with the outside world while the Communist Party maintained its tight control over the government. Jiang has been criticized for being too concerned about his personal image at home, and too conciliatory towards Russia and the United States abroad.[1] Critics[who?] also point to Jiang's inability to maintain control on various social imbalances and problems that surfaced during his term.[citation needed] Traditionalist communists in China[citation needed] charge Jiang of being a revisionist leader who legitimized outright capitalism. His contribution to the Marxist doctrine, a list of guiding ideologies by which the CPC rules China, is called the theory of the Three Represents, which has been written into the party and state constitutions.

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