Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor

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Louis IV (German: Ludwig) (1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314, the King of Italy from 1327 and the Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.

Louis IV was Duke of Upper Bavaria from 1294 /1301 together with his elder brother Rudolf I, served as Margrave of Brandenburg until 1323 and as Count Palatine of the Rhine until 1329, became also Duke of Lower Bavaria in 1340 and Count of Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland in 1345.

Contents

Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria

Louis was born in Munich, the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Matilda, a daughter of King Rudolph I.

Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother Matilda and her brother King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich.

In the same year Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the guardianship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick. On 9 November 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.

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