Mantoux test

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The Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, Tuberculin Sensitivity Test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for Purified Protein Derivative) is a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis. It is one of the two major tuberculin skin tests used in the world, largely replacing multiple-puncture tests such as the Tine test. Until 2005, the Heaf test was used in the United Kingdom, but the Mantoux test is now used. The Mantoux test is also used in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Hungary, Poland, Russia, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Portugal, South Africa and the United States and is endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It was also used in the USSR and is now prevalent in most of the former Soviet states.

Contents

History

Tuberculin is a glycerol extract of the tubercle bacillus. Purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin is a precipitate of non-species-specific molecules obtained from filtrates of sterilized, concentrated cultures. It was first described by Robert Koch in 1890. The test is named after Charles Mantoux, a French physician who developed on the work of Koch and Clemens von Pirquet to create his test in 1907.

In 1939, M. A. Linnikova in the USSR created a modified version of PPD. In 1954, the Soviet Union started mass production of PPD-L, named after Linnikova.

Procedure

A standard dose of 5 Tuberculin units (0.1 mL)[1] (The standard Mantoux test in the UK consists of an intradermal injection of 2TU of Statens Serum Institute (SSI) tuberculin RT23 in 0.1ml solution for injection.)[2] is injected intradermally (between the layers of dermis) and read 48 to 72 hours later. This intradermal injection is termed the mantoux technique. A person who has been exposed to the bacteria is expected to mount an immune response in the skin containing the bacterial proteins.

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