Mauretania

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Mauretania is a part of the historical Berber land in North Africa. It corresponds to present day Morocco and a part of western Algeria. Mauretania in antiquity was the western neighbor of the ancient Berber kingdom of Numidia.

Contents

History

In antiquity Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Mauri tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, northern Morocco and Spanish Plazas de soberanía. The Mauri people were named for the Greek word mavros, black, although this was not intended to suggest negroid or sub Saharan ancestry.[1] Some of the earliest recorded history relates to Phoenician and Carthaginian settlements such as Lixus, Volubilis, Mogador and Chellah.[2] The kingdom of Mauretania was not situated on the Atlantic coast south of Western Sahara, where modern Mauritania lies.

Roman Mauretania

After the defeat of Carthage by the Roman Empire Mauretania became a Roman client kingdom. The Romans placed Juba II of Numidia as their client-king. When Juba died in 23 AD, his Roman-educated son Ptolemy of Mauretania succeeded him on the throne. Caligula killed Ptolemy in 40. Claudius annexed Mauretania directly as a Roman province in 44, under an imperial (not senatorial) governor.

Not depriving the Mauri of their line of kings would have contributed to preserving loyalty and order, it appears: "The Mauri, indeed, manifestly worship kings, and do not conceal their name by any disguise," Cyprian observed in 247, likely quoting a geographer rather than personal observation, in his brief euhemerist exercise in deflating the gods entitled On the Vanity of Idols.[3]

In the first century Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana along the line of the Mulucha (Muluya) River, about 60 km west of modern Oran:

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