Melting point

related topics
{acid, form, water}
{math, energy, light}
{@card@, make, design}

The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the solid and the liquid are equal. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered to be a characteristic property of a substance. When the "characteristic freezing point" of a substance is determined, in fact the actual methodology is almost always "the principle of observing the disappearance rather than the formation of ice", that is, the melting point.[1]

Contents

Examples

For most substances, melting and freezing points are approximately equal. For example, the melting point and freezing point of the element mercury is 234.32 kelvin (−38.83 °C or −37.89 °F). However, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures. For example, agar melts at 85 °C (185 °F) and solidifies from 31 °C to 40 °C (89.6 °F to 104 °F); this process is known as hysteresis.

The melting point of ice at 1 atmosphere of pressure is very close [2] to 0 °C (32 °F, 273.15 K), this is also known as the ice point. In the presence of nucleating substances the freezing point of water is the same as the melting point, but in the absence of nucleators water can supercool to −42 °C (−43.6 °F, 231 K) before freezing.

The chemical element with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3683 K (3410 °C, 6170 °F) making it excellent for use as filaments in light bulbs. The often-cited carbon does not melt at ambient pressure but sublimes at about 4000 K; a liquid phase only exists above pressures of 10 MPa and estimated 4300–4700 K. Tantalum hafnium carbide (Ta4HfC5) is a refractory compound with a very high melting point of 4488 K (4215 °C, 7619 °F).[3] At the other end of the scale, helium does not freeze at all at normal pressure, even at temperatures very close to absolute zero; pressures over 20 times normal atmospheric pressure are necessary.

Full article ▸

related documents
Filtration
Gel electrophoresis
Molar mass
Eutectic point
Ununtrium
Tertiary structure
Californium
Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase
Toluene
Fluorite
Ethylene glycol
Gallium
Indium
Nucleotide
Neodymium
Tartaric acid
Standard electrode potential (data page)
Pyridine
Ribosome
Oxidation state
Americium
Isoprene
Primer (molecular biology)
Extractive metallurgy
Cellulose
Protease
Radionuclide
Picric acid
Erbium
Deoxyribose