Mexico City

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Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México) is the Federal District (Spanish: Distrito Federal), capital and largest city of Mexico.[12] Is also the largest city in the Americas and the world's third largest metropolitan area by population, after Seoul and Tokyo. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole. Mexico City is the most important political, cultural, educational and financial center in the country.

As an "alpha" global city[13] Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in North America[14] which is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres (7,350 ft). The city consists of sixteen boroughs.

The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was around 8.84 million people,[15] and has a land area of 1,485 square kilometres (573 sq mi).[16] According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the Mexico City metropolitan area population is 21.2 million people,[15] making it the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and the fifth largest agglomeration in the world.[17]

Mexico City has a gross domestic product (GDP) of $390 billion USD in 2008, making Mexico City the eighth richest city in the world. [9] The city was responsible for generating 21% of Mexico's Gross Domestic Product and the metropolitan area accounted for 34% of total national GDP.[18] As of 2010, the city proper had a per capita GDP of $47,396, a level higher than countries such as the United States or Germany as opposed to the metropolitan area, which had a nominal income per capita of $29,258 USD, on par with the GDP per capita of South Korea or Taiwan.[19]

The city was originally built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, which was almost completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan , and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán,[20] and as of 1585 it was officially known as La Ciudad de México (Mexico City).[20] Mexico City served as the political, administrative and financial centre of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire.[21] After independence from Spain was achieved, the Federal District was created in 1824.

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